The Rise Of Crypto-Judaism

6429 Words 26 Pages
Register to read the introduction… Two courses of action, it was argued, were required. First, crypto-Judaism could only be overcome by the introduction of an Inquisition; second, Jewish influence over the conversos could only be overcome by their expulsion. These ideas, adumbrated in works such as Alonso de Espina's Fortalitium Fidei, continued to gain ground, and on 27 September 1480 the Catholic Monarchs appointed Inquisitors in Castile who began their work in Seville shortly after (1481). Conversos, often subjected to torture, were discovered to be crypto-Jews and received varying punishments, ranging from pilgrimage to death by burning. During the first decade of the Inquisition's operations over 10,000 conversos were condemned. The expulsion of the Jews was authorized on 31 March 1492, in May those Jews who refused to convert left for Portugal, North Africa and Turkey. Those who fled to Portugal only found temporary refuge, for five years later they again faced the problem of forcible conversion. As in Spain, this led to the rise of crypto-Judaism, and on 23 May 1536 an Inquisition was set up on the Spanish …show more content…
1909-10 Polish boycott against Jews.
1911-13 Menahem Mendel Beilis, blood libel trial at Kiev.
1912 Pogroms in Fez (Morocco).
1915 Ku Klux Klan, rascist organization in the U.S., refounded.
1917-21 Pogroms in the Ukraine and Poland. 1) Pogroms by retreating Red Army from the Ukraine (spring, 1918), before the German army. 2) Pogroms by the retreating Ukraine army under the command of Simon Petlyura, resulting in the deaths of over 8,000Jews. 3)Pogroms by the counter revolutionary "White Army" under the command of General A.I. Denikin (fall, 1919) in which about 1,500 Jews were killed. 4) Pogroms by the "White Army" in Siberia and Mongolia (1919). 5) Pogroms by anti-Soviet bands in the Ukraine (1920-21), in which thousands of Jews were killed.
1919 Abolishment of community organization and non-Communist Jewish institutions in Soviet Russia.
1919 Pogroms in Hungary: c. 3,000 Jews killed.
1920 Adolf Hitler becomes Fuehrer, of the National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), later known as National Socialist.
1920 Henry Ford I begins a series of anti-Semitic articles based on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, in his Dearbon Independent.
1924 Economic restrictions on Jews in

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