Black Nationalism: Toward Black Liberation By Stokely Carmichael

Superior Essays
Throughout United States history, slavery, discriminatory laws, and overt institutional racism have forced African Americans to seek alternatives that would empower them to fulfill their highest potential. As a result, the Black Nationalist ideology emerged as a response to the economic exploitation and political abandonment endured by the people of African descent throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Though Black Nationalism developed in the United States it is not a unique phenomenon. In every part of the world, the belief that a people who share a common history, culture, and heritage should determine their own fate has pushed for a united racial consciousness as a way to catalyze and organize for social change. The leading …show more content…
As the chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Carmichael was the manifestation of the growing frustration with the lack of progress achieved under the leadership of Martin Luther King Jr. Carmichael’s political philosophy accentuated the importance of racial solidarity and the development of black social and cultural institutions with the key objective of nurturing and promoting black interests. More importantly, Carmichael called for the reinforcement of black values through the emergence of black pride. He alludes to these principles in Toward Black Liberation insisting that “ Our concern for black power addresses itself directly to this problem, the necessity to reclaim our history and our identity from the cultural terrorism and depredation of self-justifying white guilt”(Jones, 270). Carmichael’s attitude embodies a thoroughly disparate approach towards civil rights activism. His emphasis on “ Black Power” in this passage is a paragon of the growing divergence between the two factions in modern black political thought. Dividing the contemporary black political structure between King’s moderate establishment integrationist partnership strategy and the radical combative advocates of black nationalist separatism. Carmichael’s Black Power manifested into a cultural and political epoch that encapsulated the essence of the African …show more content…
The message of unity, celebrating and preserving the cultural, social, and historical achievements of those of African descent spoke to the hearts and minds of a people who had been subjected to centuries of violence, brutality, and oppression. The leaders of this school of thought explored radical substitutes to remedy racial discrimination against blacks in America. The Nation of Islam led by Malcolm X and The Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee spearheaded by Stokely Carmichael called for upholding a distinctive black identity divorced from mainstream white society. While the Black Panther Party ingrained the deep-rooted consciousness of black self-worth and utilized the black nationalist philosophy constructed by Marcus Garvey to address economic austerity and police brutality. In short, Black Nationalism calls on African Americans to take ownership of their lives and communities through collective social action. The notion that black institutions should be the cornerstone of black life was a revolutionary idea that shaped African American culture as we see it

Related Documents

  • Great Essays

    The Black Panther party was the biggest threat to the internal security of our nation. This showed the potential power African Americans could have in the United States if unified. Much of the unity and strength that African Americans have now was due to the Black Nationalist movement that the Black Panthers carried out. The Black Panthers have paved the way for many organizations that promote unity and strength among African Americans such as the NAACP. As a people African Americans although smaller, still have racial obstacles to get passed even in today's society.…

    • 1907 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    This ideology and movement challenges the struggles against slavery, colonialism, and racism. In addition to these struggles, Pan-Africanism worked against the inferiority complex of many black people. In “Introduction” to Philosophy and Opinion of Marcus Garvey Hollis R. Lynch states, “Black slavery, ingrained racial prejudice against blacks, the reputed backwardness of Africa, and, after its partition by European powers, the necessity to ride Africa of colonial rule and exploitation, all provided stimulus for the pan-African idea and action” (Lynch 2016, 79). That is to say Pan-Africanism was necessary to combat colonialism and racial prejudice against blacks. Furthermore, the ideals of Pan-Africanism emerged in response to the negativity derived throughout Africa in the past.…

    • 1295 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Malcolm X Essay

    • 1204 Words
    • 5 Pages

    His beliefs and ideas would prompt African-Americans to be a part of the Nation of Islam. Malcolm interpreted that the Negro had to find his “own identity, develop his own culture, and lay the foundations for a self-respecting productive community" (Haley XXVII). Malcolm X was a courageous advocate who achieved equal rights for blacks but encouraged the use of violence when met with force. During his…

    • 1204 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Black Nationalism

    • 1415 Words
    • 6 Pages

    E. B. DuBois and Marcus Garvey had a tremendous impact on the way the black community saw their future. They instilled pride and hope by means of addressing the economic, political and social inequalities that Africans face not only in the United States, but the broader diaspora and Africa. In doing so, they changed the way they see themselves and their role in the world. The differences in their Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism created options for the black community allowing for a more inclusive agenda, thus enabling the community itself to have a broader impact- from education to decolonization. Accordingly, waking the world up to the realities of being a black person in a white…

    • 1415 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Malcolm X was an advocate for the equality and rights of African Americans in the mid-twentieth century, at the height of the civil rights movement. In his famous speech, “The Ballot or the Bullet”, Malcolm X is targeting African Americans, capturing the rage that many people felt due to their oppression from the years of white superiority. Throughout the speech, Malcolm X makes it a point to say that African Americans need to become independent, and take care of solely themselves. By doing this, they would be able to fend for themselves, not relying on anyone else. Integration is the last thing that Malcolm X desires.…

    • 1649 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Racism still exist and discrimination, stereotype, and labeling encourages it.W.E.B DuBois contribution to black empowerment encourages other leaders to form and implement their ideas and belief. The NAACP still exist and defending Black injustices. In cases that spark the Black Lives Matter movement such Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown killing, the NAACP fought to bring justice to their families. The Black Lives Matter activist tries to bring light to the fact that black lives matter just as much as any other lives, but still people fail to understand their reason, and motivate behind those reason. They are trying advocate that the current capitalist society is not working for the people because it privileges one race over the other and exploit the less powerful and…

    • 1154 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Martin Luther King Jr. was a famous civil rights activist who used the nonviolence theory to get equality. He had made a great contribution in helping African American strive for quality and made them realize the importance of achieving the real equality. At the same time, Malcolm X also was a civil rights activist who advocated the way of violence to improve the position of the black people. Although Malcolm X had more militant perspectives about how to promote the black power than Martin Luther King Jr., both of them had made a huge influence on promoted the African American to achieve more rights and equality position in the United States. The connection between nonviolence and violence is important in the Civil Rights Movements.…

    • 2074 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    An early Civil Rights Debate In the late 19th century, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B Dubious were the most influential African Americans in America. They both were philosophers who wanted justice and equality for black people; however, they both had different methods and perspectives in how to tackle the racism that was going on during that time period. Although they had their differences it is undoubted that the dispute between both of them shaped the course of history for African Americans, which made America how it is today. Booker T. Washington was born in Virginia on a farm in 1856. He was unfortunately born into slavery, but that did not stop him from getting an education.…

    • 1099 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    He was a pan Africanist who held the views of anti-colonialism and the global unity of blacks and Africa as the home blacks. The UNIA which is the Universal Negro Improvement Association led by Garvey promoted social, economic, and political freedom. Dubois saw Garvey as demagogue and "the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America." This was largely in part to Garvey’s idea of moving blacks back to…

    • 1164 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Throughout the history of America, African Americans were very limited when it comes to social rights, discriminated and segregated however that didn 't stop them for fighting for what they believed in and racial injustice. In the African American community a lot of black activist created groups that helped them defended their community and the supremacy of white people. One example of an activist in the Black community was W. E. B. Du Bois he was a founder of the Niagara movement and the National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People (NAACP), both parties was created to fight racial injustice and to end segregation in the country. Other example of organizations was the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) who used the principles of nonviolent action to fight for equality and justice, the Urban League………………………….…

    • 782 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays