# The Revolution Essay

4246 Words Jun 13th, 2010 17 Pages
Factor Analysis - SPSS(
[pic]

• First Read Principal Components Analysis.

The methods we have employed so far attempt to repackage all of the variance in the p variables into principal components. We may wish to restrict our analysis to variance that is common among variables. That is, when repackaging the variables’ variance we may wish not to redistribute variance that is unique to any one variable. This is Common Factor Analysis. A common factor is an abstraction, a hypothetical dimension that affects at least two of the variables. We assume that there is also one unique factor for each variable, a factor that affects that variable but does not affect any other variables. We assume that the p unique factors are
If we sum these communalities we get 5.675. We started with 7 units of standardized variance and we have now reduced that to 5.675 units of standardized variance (by eliminating unique variance).

[pic]

For an iterated principal axis solution SPSS first estimates communalities, with R2 ’s, and then conducts the analysis. It then takes the communalities from that first analysis and inserts them into the main diagonal of the correlation matrix in place of the R2 ’s, and does the analysis again. The variables’ SSL’s from this second solution are then inserted into the main diagonal replacing the communalities from the previous iteration, etc. etc., until the change from one iteration to the next iteration is trivial.

Look at the communalities after this iterative process and for a two-factor solution. They now sum to 5.60. That is, 5.6/7 = 80% of the variance is common variance and 20% is unique. Here you can see how we have packaged that common variance into two factors, both before and after a varimax rotation:

[pic] These loadings are very similar to those we obtained previously with a principal components analysis.

Reproduced and Residual Correlation Matrices

Having extracted common factors, one can turn right around and try to reproduce the correlation matrix from the factor loading matrix. We assume that the correlations between variables result from their

## Related Documents

• ###### Essay The American Revolution And Haitian Revolution

The American revolution and Haitian Revolution all achieve their initial political goals with verging of success. Rebellion was the key point of success and both revolutions. Despite the social cost of the Haitian Revolution they were able to propel the ideas of democracy and the idea of the quality far beyond boundaries established by the American revolution. Both of these revolutions are known as the greatest revolution in the western hemisphere. The Haitian Revolution is said to be known as the…

Words: 1825 - Pages:
• ###### Essay The Revolution Of The Green Revolution

Merriam Webster describes revolution as a sudden, extreme, or complete change in the way people live, work, etc. During the 1930s -1960s in South Asia there was a revolution that occurred concerning agriculture. This revolution has been marked in history as the Green Revolution. Many components went into making the Green Revolution the success that is was such as; the production of fertilizers, higher yielding crops, herbicides, and pesticides. The Green Revolution occurred due to a shortage of food…

Words: 1462 - Pages: 6
• ###### Essay The Revolutions Of 1848 And The Industrial Revolution

The Revolutions of 1848 was a widespread in the history of Europe this response to social and economic pressures brought on by the eighteenth century Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution. Conservative monarchs throughout Europe were threatened as middle and working class people attempted to establish new governments that allowed the common man a voice in government function. This is the reason why the revolutions happened in Germany, Italy, and France and each revolution failed to achieve…

Words: 1500 - Pages: 6
• ###### Essay The French Revolution And The American Revolution

American, French, and Haitian revolutions occurred within 20 years of each other during the late 18th and early 19th century. The American and French revolutions preceded the Haitian Revolution and greatly affected its results. Although the Haitian revolution shared a similar goal as the American Revolution, many of the resistance tactics and occurrences more closely resemble those of the French Revolution. It is likely true that the beginning of the Haitian revolution was heavily influenced and inspired…

Words: 1153 - Pages: 5
• ###### Essay The Revolution Of The French Revolution

from history. Many people consider him a tyrant and a traitor to the revolution since he named himself emperor and had more power than any bourbon King. An equal number of people, however, consider him a champion of the ideals of the French Revolution which was, in turn, based on Enlightenment thought. While there is plenty of evidence for both of these views, I believe That Napoleon’s advance of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the after-effects his rule, far outweigh his betrayals of those…

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5
• ###### Essay The Revolution Of The American Revolution

American Revolution and whether it was truly revolution or not, taking a closer look into the roles of ethnic groups during this time can help answer that question. Euro-American people wanted freedom from Britain and its rule, while native american people wanted freedom from the Euro-Americans to live in the traditions they were accustom too. Although Colonist received what they desired, a revolution, the latter group did not. From the view point of the immigrant Europeans, the revolution was a much…

Words: 807 - Pages: 4
• ###### Essay The Industrial Revolution And The Market Revolution

Industrial revolution After the independence as the Government was formed, White Americans were fortunate to live under a representative republican government, but for Blacks it was still not the Freedom. They continued to live a life of slaves. Republicanism influenced social and family values. Also there was a complex interaction between republicanism and religion. Women devoted their energies to religious purposes as they got inspired by Second Great Awakening. In this era two major revolutions happened…

Words: 780 - Pages: 4
• ###### Essay The French Revolution And The Revolution

The French revolution started because the citizens wanted more freedoms and rights. The idea of the new government came from the Enlightenment philosophers. Locke was one of the many he rejected monarchy also he believed that government should be selected by and follow the will of the majority, which was a fundamental assertion of the Revolution. Montesquieu introduced the idea of separation of powers in government (from The Spirit of the Law). Where Montesquieu had understood freedom as being unconstrained…

Words: 1177 - Pages: 5
• ###### Essay The Revolution Of The French Revolution

As the French Revolution was beginning to hit its height, a small Brigadier General was starting to grow into fame. Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 in Corsica and when he was twenty-seven years old in 1796 was given the reigns of the French Army of Italy. He was given these reigns for his prestigious smarts in and out of the classroom. David Bell stated in his concise biography Napoleon, which Napoleon said “I lived like a bear…always alone in my small room with my books…my only friends!” This…

Words: 770 - Pages: 4
• ###### Essay The Iranian Revolution And The Islamic Revolution

Similarly in Iran, Western involvement in Iranian politics led to the rise of Islamist groups and eventually the Iranian Revolution in 1979, later known as the Islamic Revolution. The revolution was in response to Western influence and involvement in Iran during the Pahlavi dynasty. Both Great Britain and Soviet Russia invaded and occupied Iran in August 1941, forcing the abdication of Mohammad Reza Shah in favour of his son, in retaliation to his declaration of neutrality in the Second World War…

Words: 768 - Pages: 4