The Red Summer Of 1919 Essay

Good Essays
The Red Summer of 1919
The assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914, set off a series of battles that would eventually lead to World War I. The United States answered the call to battle, deploying 5 million men both black and white, this once again gave African Americans the opportunity to serve their country. Domestically, The Great Migration, in which at least 500,000 African Americans moved to cities in the North and Midwest to escape legalized southern oppression such as Jim Crow laws, lynching, and denial of suffrage rights. Living in the north would provide African American with better job, housing, educational opportunities. The Great Migration would serve the
…show more content…
Instead they were met with racial violence, ethnic prejudices, and job discrimination. The recession following WWI set the stage for what was called: The NAACP records show, at least 25 major riots occurred, (McWhirter, p.15) and more than 70 civilians were lynched, at least 10 Black veterans in uniform. (Ellis, p.41) African American soldiers returned from World War I with a sense of renewed patriotism only to be denied jobs and admission to Army parades. This recession following WWI set the stage for The Red Summer of 1919. The Red Summer of 1919 was a series of race riots that began in Charleston, South Carolina on May 10, 1919 and ended in Elaine, Arkansas on October 1, 1919. The Bloodiest riots took place in Washington D. C., Chi-cago and Elaine, …show more content…
The first wave of African Americans made the mass exodus to the North and Mid-west to make a better life for themselves and their families. Veterans lately returned from the war only to find themselves in competition for jobs and housing. In late July more than 250,000 workers in Chicago were either on strike, about to strike, or locked out.(McWhirter, p. 120) The administration hired black strikebreakers to work the these jobs during this period. Union white workers of all ethnicities attacked nonunion black workers in bloody battles, Black workers re-sponded by forming their own battle union called, the “Wilson Efficiency Club” for their self-defense.(McWhirter, p. 119) The Red Summer riot of Washington D.C. ignited on July 19, a mob of white men brutal-ly beat random African Americans riding streetcars and pedestrians after hearing a report of a black man raping a white woman. After the local authorities refused to step in, blacks and whites fought for over four nights until President Woodrow Wilson sent two thousand troops to end the riot. The riot resulted in four whites and two African American being killed and about 50 people severely injured. The Washington D. C. riot was one of the only riots in which African Ameri-cans met force with

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    In 1866, one year following the civil war, Memphis broke out suddenly and dramatically with a three-day outbreak of racial violence. This included the whites rioting through neighborhoods that consisted of black people. Forty-six freed people were murdered by the moment the fires destroying black churches and schools had been put out. Congress was irate at the fact white opposition in the conquered South initiated what was called the Radical Reconstruction. This was a policy put in place to safeguard the freedom of the region’s blacks.…

    • 843 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The Irish observer who verbally defended the injustice for was not the only white person punished by rioters for seeming overly sympathetic to blacks. Throughout the five day duration of the New York City Riots, mobs harassed and lynched eleven black men. The riots also forced many blacks to relocate out of the city. On Tuesday, July 14, the rioters again focused on destroying and looting property of the wealthy, including stores such as Brooks Brothers. The protesters assaulted police and soldiers, who represented federal authority, and erected barricades along First and Third Avenues.…

    • 1481 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    For five days, this riot raged on, first with the looters breaking into stores, then the fires that were started and finally the National Guard came in to stop it all. Forty-three people died, and more than 1100 injured, which made this one of the most deadly riots of the decade. (Herman) So many riots happened in the 1960s that it is amazing that those cities are still standing. Some treatment of African Americans gradually improved with the Fair Housing Act. President Johnson urged the House of Representatives to pass the Fair Housing Act less than a week after that, April 10, 1968 to honor MLK’s memory.…

    • 934 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    In 1831 there was the Nat Turner rebellion, where Nat turner (a slave) took 6 others slaves and went from plantation to plantation killing all slave owners, eventually his 6 turned into 40 slaves building in numbers per plantation raided. There was widespread fear in the aftermath of the rebellion, and white militias organized in retaliation against slaves. The raids only lasted a few days, turner was caught months later. The state executed 56 slaves accused of being part of the rebellion, and in the frenzy, many enslaved people who did not participate were still punished. At least 100 blacks and possibly up to 200, were murdered by militias and mobs in the area.…

    • 1279 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    In chicago there were thirty- eight african americans killed and five hundred injured. One of the most famous race riots happened in Tulsa Oklahoma in 1921. A white elevator operator claimed that a black man had attacked her, the african american man was arrested. White residents set black peoples homes on fire and damaged businesses ran by African Americans. There was a total of thirty- five city blocks and more than 6,000 blacks were arrested.…

    • 1364 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    200 people were killed in these battles, and there were over two million dollars in damages. Lastly, John Brown was a violent abolitionist during this time period who helped fuel controversy among the North and South. He led the Pottawatomie Massacre and also the raid on Harper’s Ferry in Virginia in 1859. He dreamed of starting a slave rebellion, but few volunteered to help him out of fear of being killed. Within 6 weeks of…

    • 970 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    After Kennedy's death, President Johnson prodded Congress into enacting (August 1965) a Voting Rights Act that eliminated all qualifying tests for registration that had as their objective limiting the right to vote to whites. Thereafter, massive voter registration drives in the South sent the proportion of registered blacks spurting upward from less than 30% to over 53% in 1966. The civil rights phase of the African american revolution had reached its legislative and judicial summit. Then, from 1964 to 1968, more than a hundred American cities were swept by race riots, which included dynamiters, guerrilla warfare, and huge conflagrations, as the anger of the northern African American community at its relatively low income, high unemployment, and social exclusion exploded. the northern white community drew back rapidly from its reformist stance on the race issue.…

    • 329 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Once he found out, White left the next morning on the first train to escape his death. Upon returning North, the Greenwood district of Oklahoma, which was occupied by prosperous black people and was known as the ‘black wall street’ was in the news for raping. A black man had raped a white woman which led to what is possibly the worst race riot in American history. White men killed 300 black people by random selection, burned houses and businesses, and completely destroyed the city. They had set 35 blocks to flames.…

    • 2160 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Also on the 2nd of July, 1917, a white mob of white men destroyed $400,000 worth of property belonging to both whites and negroes which drove 6,000 Negroes out of their homes. (Arnesen 80,81) The African American were not welcome to almost any city at any time. A leader of a labor union by the name of Mr. Mason had this to say, “some action should be taken to retard this growing menance. This is not a protest against the Negro who has been a long resident but the new one.” (Arnesen 82) I believe that the substantial increase of Blacks to the North scared many Northerners who resulted to violence thus taking hope away from African Americans…

    • 1169 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Tulsa Race Riot Essay

    • 767 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Towards the end of the night it was reported that Dick Rowland had raped Sarah Page. Once law enforcement hear about Rowland false actions ,they took him to the Tulsa Courthouse were he remained for hours.At nine p.m,there were hundreds of whites gathered outside the Tulsa County Courthouse, demanding that the authorities hand over Dick Rowland, but the sheriff refused. The following hour, it was reports of the dire conditions downtown reached Greenwood, a group of approximately twenty-five armed African American men, many of them World War I veterans, went down to the courthouse and offered their services to the authorities to help protect Rowland. The sheriff, however, turned them down, and the men returned to Greenwood.Once the black Tulsans were sent home, an hour later it was rumor that white where stroming in the courthouse. “This time, a second contingent of African American men, perhaps seventy-five in number, went back to the courthouse and offered their services to the authorities.…

    • 767 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays