The Red Summer Of 1919 Essay

1001 Words 5 Pages
The Red Summer of 1919
The assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914, set off a series of battles that would eventually lead to World War I. The United States answered the call to battle, deploying 5 million men both black and white, this once again gave African Americans the opportunity to serve their country. Domestically, The Great Migration, in which at least 500,000 African Americans moved to cities in the North and Midwest to escape legalized southern oppression such as Jim Crow laws, lynching, and denial of suffrage rights. Living in the north would provide African American with better job, housing, educational opportunities. The Great Migration would serve the
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Instead they were met with racial violence, ethnic prejudices, and job discrimination. The recession following WWI set the stage for what was called: The NAACP records show, at least 25 major riots occurred, (McWhirter, p.15) and more than 70 civilians were lynched, at least 10 Black veterans in uniform. (Ellis, p.41) African American soldiers returned from World War I with a sense of renewed patriotism only to be denied jobs and admission to Army parades. This recession following WWI set the stage for The Red Summer of 1919. The Red Summer of 1919 was a series of race riots that began in Charleston, South Carolina on May 10, 1919 and ended in Elaine, Arkansas on October 1, 1919. The Bloodiest riots took place in Washington D. C., Chi-cago and Elaine, …show more content…
The first wave of African Americans made the mass exodus to the North and Mid-west to make a better life for themselves and their families. Veterans lately returned from the war only to find themselves in competition for jobs and housing. In late July more than 250,000 workers in Chicago were either on strike, about to strike, or locked out.(McWhirter, p. 120) The administration hired black strikebreakers to work the these jobs during this period. Union white workers of all ethnicities attacked nonunion black workers in bloody battles, Black workers re-sponded by forming their own battle union called, the “Wilson Efficiency Club” for their self-defense.(McWhirter, p. 119) The Red Summer riot of Washington D.C. ignited on July 19, a mob of white men brutal-ly beat random African Americans riding streetcars and pedestrians after hearing a report of a black man raping a white woman. After the local authorities refused to step in, blacks and whites fought for over four nights until President Woodrow Wilson sent two thousand troops to end the riot. The riot resulted in four whites and two African American being killed and about 50 people severely injured. The Washington D. C. riot was one of the only riots in which African Ameri-cans met force with

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