In Vitro

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In vitro, derived from Latin, meaning “in glass”, are the study of biological components outside the body. The presence of those components in the body is termed in vivo. Generally designing of medical device components are designed in vitro and few make it in vivo trials. Governing bodies like FDA requires in vitro testing prior to the in vivo testing in humans or animals. The in vitro environments gives freedom to experiment and evaluate better designs and conduct certain experiments that could not be controlled as accurately within the body.
1.4.1 Mock Circulatory loops (MCL) In order to install a Medical Device inside a human body, it has to go through various testing methods to validate its purpose and design and to avoid further complications
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The mock circulatory loop is a representation of the cardiovascular circulatory system as bench top system (In Vitro). The Mock Circulatory Loop (MCL) gives the designers of medical devices, a platform to test their devices in a flow loop system with specifications similar to that of a human cardiovascular system. Various designers of mock circulatory loops have come with their designs of the mock circulatory flow loop that represents the cardio vascular flow of blood through the heart. The parameters representing the true condition have to be accurate for better performance testing. Also the ability to simulate different physiological conditions within the loop should that are favorable for testing of diseased conditions in vitro. A regular mock circulatory loop consists of a pump to produce the pumping action of the heart, a venous reservoir to simulate ventricular chambers for holding fluid connected through pipes, cardiac simulator, compliance …show more content…
The diastolic pressure is determined by the height in the column of the fluid which is water in this case instead of blood. The pressure represented by the water height of 82mm is 60 mmHg. An air chamber was used to overcome the inertia of the fluid column for it to make room for ventricular output. The fluid is exposed to air to reduce siphon formation. A flow meter is used while the flow continuous into the venous tank, indicating the pressure in the right ventricle. The fluid then continuous to flow into the right atrium and into the pulmonary artery to a dispensable tube of length 26 centimeters giving 26 mmHg pressure. This fluid overflow is directed into the left venous tank which, its pressure indicated the pressure of the left atrium. This fluid then completes its circulation by traveling into the left ventricle to initiate a second round of circulation. This system was first of its kind to consider both systemic and pulmonary circulations. It accommodated variable pressure by changing the height of fluid in the columns

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