The Pros And Cons Of Prenatal Development
Does what happens to the mother prior to birth impact the development of the child after birth? There is a correlation between the negative stresses on the mother and the child 's developmental problems.
Prenatal development is crucial to a healthy birth for both the mother and the child. Three trimesters define major portions and milestones of prenatal development. The milestones of prenatal development begin with the germinal phase. Then followed by the embryonic phase, ending with the fetus stage. Global, cognitive, behavioral, socio-emotional, and psychomotor are five aspects of infant development which can be potentially impacted by external forces. A greater understanding of prenatal …show more content…
Starting with protection from harm, informed consent/assent, privacy, knowledge of results, and beneficial treatments. Beginning with protection from harm, children have the right to protection from any potential harm, both physical and psychological, that the research could cause. If harm is a potential outcome, the researchers have to either adjust their process to eliminate the chance of harm or abandon the research entirely. Neither the child nor the mother is purposely subjected to anything harmful. All potentially harmful factors were preexisting at the time of the research. Second, informed consent/assent is a right of children to have the research thoroughly explained to them in an appropriate manner. Since minors cannot legally give consent, researchers are typically required to get the child 's written assent, or agreement, prior to participation in the research. All participants have the right to withdraw involvement in the research at any time. Since no experiments were performed on the participants. The researchers informed participants that the observation and data recording were occurring. The women were informed. Due to the age of the children, they were not given an explanation of the research. However, their mothers consented to participate in the research on their behalf. The participants have a right to privacy, meaning their identity is not used in any information …show more content…
The studies were chosen based on several criteria. The one criteria for inclusion was exposure in any form of maternal psychological distress occurring during pregnancy of the postpartum period (first year after birth). The outcome was a measure of child development from birth to 12 months. It included global indices of development , behavior, cognitive development, socio-emotional development, and psychomotor development is another criteria for inclusion in the collective study. The studies also required women and children from developed countries. Publication of a primary study in English between 1990 and 2010. Exclusion criteria for the collective study are the following the exposure due to pharmacological treatment for maternal distress and required a comparison group. If maternal distress during the prenatal or postpartum period was part of a composite variable that extended beyond 1 year postpartum the study was excluded.
Infant outcomes were organized based upon the individual researchers’ descriptions. A global index of development combined the developmental components of socio-emotional, behavioral and cognitive development into a single index. Trimesters of pregnancy were divided into 0-13 weeks, >13-26 weeks, and >26-40+ weeks. Effect sizes used Cohen’s guidelines for their measurement and comparison.