The Pros And Cons Of Multiple Codons

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DNA is the element of making an organism. It contains genetic information that can be applied to all kinds of functions required for living. DNA is a sequence of nucleotides which can be transcript to mRNA. When mRNA is formed, it can later on translate to tRNA where codon could be found. Codon is a set of nucleotide in tRNA which is directly related to the formation of amino acid. The combination of codon determines the characteristic of the amino acid. In other words, to make amino acids, correct genetic code, also known as codons, are required. A codon is made up of three nucleotides which contains genetic information and forms tRNA. A genome is a database where all instructions are saved. Each instruction is made up of codons. Each codon …show more content…
Also, there are many codons in the whole genome, which is very difficult for scientist to replace all instance of seven codons. The propose of multiple codon replacement can be done by simultaneously edit multiple alleles using MAGE, a machine that process gene modification, or Cas9, an enzyme, both require more steps and other ingredients and equipment. Moreover, there is also high chance to cause mutation. To compensate, the team designed a computational and experimental tools to construct the prototype synthetic organism. The codon they choose to replace are ones that were replaced genome-wide such as: UAG (stop). Codons that can limit the change such as AGG and AGA (Arg) are also selected because the few amount in genome. Furthermore, codons which their anti-codons are not tRNA identity element were also chosen, for instance, AGC, AGU, UUG, and UUA. The last step is to confirm all chosen codons are able to interact with different tRNA than their synonymous codons. The team based the 57-codon genome on the reduced genome E. coli MDS42 as a carrier to lower the cost of the experiment. The team focus on retaining the same pattern of amino acid related to the codons. Then they applied adjustment to the DNA sequence so the function is running

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