Therapeutic Engineering: The Three Types Of Human Cloning

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Mammalian cloning has been a popular subject in the scientific world for the past 50 years. In 1996, however, a breakthrough was made when Dolly the sheep was successfully cloned from another sheep through the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer, or SCNT (Smith). This caused the cloning era to begin and researchers all around the world strived to advance the discipline. Three types of artificial cloning currently exist, including gene, therapeutic, and reproductive cloning. Gene cloning copies desired genes in order to test new medicines, research vaccines and viruses, and more. Therapeutic cloning, although still a very undeveloped process, attempts to clone embryos or even organs of a donor to research diseases and possibly provide …show more content…
Lives of countless individuals, many merely newborns, will be endangered if human cloning were to be permitted. For example, animals replicated in previous studies have had deformities and defects which greatly hinder the quality of life of the offspring. These include enlarged hearts, bodies more than twice the size of that of the average, and diabetes (Andrews 651). Approximately one-fifth of these animals even died following delivery (Andrews 651). Some of these life altering effects can be spotted immediately, but others occur later on in time. This is because some genes within the clone that are activated by a researcher and were not in the original may uncover mutations that were not previously seen in the original (Andrews 650). Mutations can also occur if the process is not executed correctly. Because these results occurred in test animals, it is very likely that they will repeat in a human clone. If the goal of cloning was to have a child, the high failure risks associated with this procedure would most definitely scar a want to be parent far worse than would adoption or not having a child at all. Most people wouldn’t want to endure the process of repeatedly losing a child to failed pregnancies, unsuccessful child births, and imperfect science just to have a genetically related baby. “…the possibility that human clones would be sterile is …show more content…
For instance, clones may not be loved for their own unique personality, but instead because they resemble the individual from whom they were cloned (Andrews 654). This may make the cloned child feel inadequate and like they were only created to fill in the shoes of someone else. Feelings of depression and unworthiness may follow. In addition, “when a clone is created from a dead child, the parents might expect the second child to be a replacement for the first” (Andrews 653). However, this is not the case. Cloning only passes along the genes of an individual, not their experiences (Pence). Because of this, the clone and the original will not necessarily have the same personalities. When parents and those around the clone see that the child is not like the person who was copied, they may be disappointed. This will only further fuel the child’s feelings of inadequateness. In continuation, some parents might clone to replace a deceased child. When the new baby is born and travels through adolescence “the similar physical appearance of the second child will bring to life the ghost of the first” (Andrews 653). The parents might feel an increased need to protect this child more than the first due to the grief of losing a loved on already. As a result, the clone will be overprotected and sheltered, taking away experiences vital to proper character development (Andrews 653). Also,

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