The Pros And Cons Of Epistemology

1280 Words 6 Pages
Epistemological assumptions are those that focus on what can be known and how knowledge can be acquired (Bell, 8). I side with positivism; which states knowledge can be found via empirical observations (obtained through the senses). Positivism follows an identical approach as the study of natural sciences in the testing of a theory. Though their is a difference between the study of social research, and natural sciences the deductive approach works just as well in both. I believe that a hypothesis should be tested by empirical observations before it can be considered knowledge. Ontology as Bell states is split up into two camps, by two sets of questions, firstly: do social phenomena have an objective reality, independent of our perceptions, …show more content…
Milgram wanted to find out whether or not people would obey an authority figure, when given morally wrong instructions. Researchers sign the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS 2), which outlines the rules and guidelines in conducting research with humans. It outlines three core principles: respect for person 's, concern for welfare, and justice. (Bell 50). In the Milgram experiment, two out of the three principles are brought into question: respect for person 's, and concern for welfare. Respect for person 's, states that humans should not be treated as means to an end (51). This section, states that participants will be: aware of the purpose of the research, how it will be conducted, and the risks involved (51). However, if the participants are given all the details, it would be difficult to avoid reactive effects that occur when people know they are being monitored (52). Milgram’s experiment is tainted with deception, the participants believed they were shocking a real person, and were unaware that the learner was an associate of Milgram 's. The participants were deceived, whether it was when they self inflicted the pain, or when they ordered someone to administer it, they still thought that they were shocking someone (53). …show more content…
The podcasters used a variety of methods, however, primarily they conducted telephone interviews. They used an inductive approach where they did not have a theory but generated one after they found evidence. Firstly, they called James Cook an economics professor, who presented the principle agent problem. This is when the “agent” is able to make decisions that impact the "principal". In this situation, professors choose what textbooks student use in class. The professor will choose the best book, however, it is usually the most expensive, but they never have to pay. So the problem never affects them. This means publishers have less an incentive to keep prices down, because as long as their book is superior, professors will select it. Greg Manq also an economics, believes that it is not ideal, however, there are numerous situations in life when we trust someone else’s judgement to make our decision. When you get your car fixed, you trust the mechanic to help you make an informed decision. Furthermore, Man Q states that “time is the biggest thing students are giving up, if they are giving me their time I want to be giving them the best book to read, and learn from”. Prices also go up because there exists a used textbook market. With modern technology, we are now able to buy a book, and after we finish the course sell it, and be able to ship internationally if their is a buyer. As soon as you’re done your class you

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