The Problem Of Evil By Michael Tooley Critical Analysis

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Throughout the time we have spent so far in this class, we have discussed many different philosophical topics. One of which is why evil, suffering, and pain happen in the world. In our readings, several authors have given several explanations as to why evil exists but only one of the explanations is sufficient. This explanation comes from Michael Tooley’s “The Problem of Evil: Theodicies”. In this reading, he states and debunks four theodicies that religious communities often use in their attempts to explain why God allows evil and suffering in the world. In his free will theodicy, he states that evil occurs in the world because humans have free will to do whatever they choose, good or bad. Though he provides counter arguments for all four …show more content…
The basis of this concept is that the evil in the world is justified because God designed the world in that way. That way being that pain and suffering helps individuals grow in a spiritual sense (195). The counter arguments against this theodicy that Tooley gives are that A) lots of suffering is caused by people inflicting pain upon other people, B) it does not give justification for the pain of animals or other (presumably) soulless creatures, C) it does not give justification for the suffering that innocent people endure, and D) it just doesn’t make sense for the world to be constructed in this way (195-196). The counter arguments that Tooley gives are sufficient and make sense because he does not give any reason as to why evil actually exists. He only states reasons as to why pain and evil are justified. Because of this shortcoming in the theodicy, the soul making argument is fundamentally flawed and ultimately not …show more content…
Michael Tooley gives two theodicies that are very similar because they are both based in the fact that humans have free will. The evidence and counter arguments that Tooley gives for both theodicies are immensely more sufficient than the other things he writes about the two other theodicies because in these theodicies he actually gives a reason as to why evil exists that is comprehensible and believable. It is easy to believe that humans have some degree of free will and it is also even easier to believe that humans won’t always choose the option that helps other people in suffering. The drowning child example that we talked about in class is a perfect example of why people don’t always choose the “right” thing because if we are not directly faced with the issue and if it does not directly affect us negatively we are very unlikely to help. Additionally, the bystander effect is a real thing that happens within the human race. Admittedly, both the “ignorance is bliss” and bystander effect happen to me too so I think it makes sense that it happens to other humans as

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