The Peace And Security Challenges In North Africa

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2.Countries in the Sahel region face various challenges. Among these challenges frequent climate change, desertification, deforestation, frequent food crises, extreme poverty, rapid population growth are the main ones. Basides to the natural problem of the region some other problems such as ethnic centrism, fragile governance, corruption, unresolved internal tensions, violent extremism and radicalization, illegal trafficking and terrorist-linked security threats affects the peace and security of the people in the Sahel region of Africa. As a result, the Sahel region is one of the poorest and most environmentally degraded and conflict affected areas of the world (European Union External Action Service).

These natural and manmade problems in
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Accordingly, the EU report indicated that there is no doubt that North Africa remains a critical area for radical Islam’s (Salafi jihadism) expansion, which affects each North African country both idiosyncratically and transnationally. Yet, close scrutiny of AQIM’s foothold in the Sahara and Sahel region fails to convey a sense of urgency and critical threat, let alone of an incipient offensive posture or projection capability emerging from an autonomous operational basis in the Sahel ( about the Salafi Jahadist Ideology (Moghadam, 2008))

The security threat from terrorist activity by Al-Qaida in the Maghreb (AQIM), which has found a sanctuary in Northern Mali, is focused on Western targets and has evolved from taking money to taking life, discouraging investment in the region. AQIM resources and operational capacities are significant and growing. Deteriorating security conditions pose a challenge to development cooperation and restrict the delivery of humanitarian assistance and development aid, which in turn exacerbates the vulnerability of the region and its population.(European Union External Action Service

5. Evaluation of the Major Conflict incidents in North Africa and the Sahel with ABC Conflict
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The changed in one of these factors of the conflict affects the other part of the conflict triangle. A conflict has a manifest and a latent sides, the manifest side being identified with behavior, the latent aspect with attitude and contradictions (Galtung, 1996). Accordingly, the contradiction of the conflicting parties is the basic aspect for a conflict then the attitudes and perceptions of these groups will changes and this will manifest through their behavior. The attitude in a conflict is the perception, predisposition and recognition of one party for the other party of the conflict. Once the attitudes are changed, the behavioral changes will ensue.
Therefore, conflict attitudes are regarded as those psychological states (common attitudes, emotions and evaluations as well as patterns of perception and misperception) that frequently accompany and arise from involvement in a situation of a conflict. Conflict attitudes and perceptions are assumed to be factors arising through the stresses of being in a conflict, rather than factors fundamentally causing conflicts, although extreme conflict attitudes involving hostility, and misperceptions and dehumanization of the opposing party will obviously exacerbate any dispute (Mitchell, 1981, p.

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