The Leader Of The Roman-Catholic Church

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Italy in the year 1620 is a very trying time for individuals who go against the Roman-Catholic doctrine. From the beginning of the first century when Christianity was introduced to the Italian peninsula, it rose to a powerhouse status as a social and religious leviathan (Kirsch). During this time period, the Church had the power to mandate, shape and enforce laws, giving harsh repercussions such as imprisonment or in exceptional cases, death for those who publically spoke against it (Wolfgang). The leader of the Catholic Church is the pope, who during this period was Pope Paul V. The city of Reggio-Emilia, located in the northeast part of Italy, was incorporated in Emilia-Romagna, which was part of the Papal States, a group of Italian territories that were under direct rule of the Pope from the 8 to 18th centuries (Papal States).

In 1543,
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The geocentric theory, which theorized that the sun, moon, and stars all orbited the earth in small rings called epicycles, was the widely accepted and accurate model of the universe at the time according to the Church (Williams). The Ptolemaic model looked to improve the field of astronomy, as Ptolemy concluded that the Aristotelian homocentric model of spherical shells was not an accurate enough as an astronomical theory. As the Church was at odds with Aristotelian theories such as the

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