Influenza Virus

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A) The infection process of a vertebrate virus consists of 6 stages. Provide the name for each stage and provide details of the events that take place at each stage using Influenza virus A as the model.

The 6 stages consist of: Attachment, Penetration, Uncoating, Biosynthesis, Assembly, and Release.
Attachment is when the virus attaches or “locks” itself onto an acceptable cell. This occurs because a protein receptor is recognized by the virus and the virus attaches to the cell. Penetration is when the virus moves through the plasma membrane of the cell it locked onto into the cytoplasm of the cell. This happens during a process known as endocytosis. Endocytosis is the process of a cell taking something in from the environment. Uncoating
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So a long period needs to occur for an insect to transmit a virus to the plant. This differs from the non-persistent transmission. Non-persistent transmission only requires short feeding times for a plant to obtain the virus. It also requires a short period during which the insect is capable of transmitting the virus. The two forms of persistent transmission are persistent circulative and persistent propagative. Persistent circulative is when the virus travels to the hind gut and the anterior salivary gland. Persistent propagative is when the virus will only go to the salivary …show more content…
This will cause an immune response in the body. This immune response can include B cells and T cells. The B cells are involved with producing antibodies to fight the antigen and the T cells are involved with cell-mediated immunity. The goal of a vaccine is to promote long term immunity against a virus. It does this by forming an immunological memory. This will allow the body to remember a virus if it comes to attack again. The body will have a faster immune response to the virus if it is exposed to the virus for a second time. Three methods of viruses being modified into vaccines are: inactivated virus vaccine, live attenuated virus vaccine and virion subunit vaccines. Inactivated virus vaccine this vaccine will include a mixture of a dead virus, that means that the virus is inactivated. The virus will be killed by some type of chemical, a common one is formaldehyde. It is crucial for the virus that makes up the virus to be inactivated because, the virus is the one that causes the disease. This is one crucial aspect of this vaccine. The Salk polio vaccine is an example of an inactivated virus vaccine. Live attenuated virus vaccine this vaccine differs from an inactivated virus vaccine because this vaccine contains a living mixture of a virus. The virus has been attenuated which means that it has been weekend, but it is related to the wild type strain that causes the disease. This type of vaccine

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