Psuedowords In English Language Study

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Students identify and decode lists of letters and words, some of which are psuedowords. Psuedowords are included because students are expected to use decoding skills to correctly pronounce words, rather than rely simply on memorization. Used to track progress, determine if additional support is necessary, and provide proof of mastery at the end of a section. They are usually and best used to plan instruction (“Scholastic RED,” 2002.)
Many words in the English language do cannot be sounded out. Therefore, students learning to read need strategies besides decoding to read unknown words. Most experienced readers use a variety of strategies to understand text. Teachers should teach these strategies to beginning readers (Taylor, 2013).

Exit slips
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The goal is to alter a beginning word into an ending word (Rasinski, 2008). Changing the word cat into dog, for example. All the words between the beginning and ending words must be real.
• Word Ladders are useful for phonics because, when students form a new word from one they have just made, they must closely examine sound-symbol relationships.
• The pictures are examples of Word Ladders. One is for getting students to practice their words “cat - cap - map - mop - pop - pot - dot - dog.” The other is for changing “cat,” to “dog,” in as few words as possible.

• Analogy books are books that feature a fixed rime and changing onset. They are designed to show that students can use what they know to read/spell words with similar parts. When using these books, teachers should talk about sound, pattern, and position of words. Students should also be encouraged to discuss the similarities of the words. Analogy books help students with automaticity and expand their vocabulary - “If I know CAT, then I know BAT,” (“Reading First,”
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Students are given an unfamiliar, grade-level text and are instructed to read-aloud for one minute. Words omitted, substituted, and hesitations of more than three seconds are scored as errors. Words self-corrected within three seconds are scored as accurate. The number of correct words per minute is the oral reading fluency score.
Students are asked to read aloud. They are informed that, if they become stuck, the administrator will tell them the word. Also, they are asked to do their best reading because, once students are finished reading, they may be asked to explain what they read (“DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency,” n.d.).
Readers Theater is strategy to provide students’ opportunities to practice their oral reading practice. Reader 's Theater improves fluency and allows students to read with expression, since they do not necessarily have to memories a script. It provides a fun and engaging reason to read-aloud, motivating reluctant readers. There is no big budget, as there would be in a normal theater production. No costumes, specialized lighting, or props are needed (“Reader’s Theater,”

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