The Importance Of Turbidity And Atomic Spectroscopy

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Turbidity: - Turbidity is a degree of water clarity. Turbidity is defined as an “expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines through the sample”. Nephelometers are used to measure the intensity of light scattered by contaminants present in water such as suspended and colloidal solids like clay, silt and microscopic organisms. Turbidimeters using the principle of nephelometer compare the light scattered due to contamination with the light scattering from a standard reference suspension. The result of the measurement is expressed as nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU). Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy - Atomic spectroscopy is a tool to find minute concentration of …show more content…
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL MEASUREMENT: pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen were measured in situ. Other parameters like electrical conductivity, turbidity, suspended solids were measured in the lab.

Temperature influences rate of biochemical rate of reaction in the water reserves. As for every 10oC rise in temperature the rate becomes double. Increase in temperature decreases the solubility of gases in water. It also increases the respiration of organisms present in the water and increases the rate of decomposition of organic matter. The temperature of the surface water varies between, while for ground water it varies as 26.7 to 30.3. pH values were measured at the site and are tabulated in the table. According to WHO the acceptable limit lies between 6.5 and 8.5. Except at one site other pH values are below 7. pH values affect the rate of intake of metals and toxins by plant and aquatic species. Low pH supports in the intake of metals and toxins but higher pH decreases the rate of their
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If the amount of organic matter is higher is the water resource the rate of respiration and decomposition will be high, it reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. The optimal DO concentration for growth of aquatic life is 5.00 - 8.00 mg/l. lesser amount of DO shows the continuous deposition of organic waste and leachate into the water reserve.

BOD5 represents the rate of decomposition of organic matter. If the amount of organic load would be higher it would require high amount of oxygen for their decomposition. Hence, DO level will reduce. BOD5 of a water reserve must not reduce than 4mg/l.

Hardness – the concentration of bivalent metallic ions such as Ca++ and Mg++ in a given water sample Is known as its hardness. Hardness is measured by titration method where EDTA (0.1M standard sample) is used as titrant and erichrome black T is used as an indicator. Hardness of water is calculated as mg equivalent of CaCO3. water is called soft until 60mg/l of hardness moderately hard on 60-120 mg/l range and had in 120-180mg/l range [7].

Ammonia: - Ammonia is produced when nitrogenous organic matter is destroyed by microbiological activity. Agricultural waste or waste from fertilizer industries containing nitrogen or free ammonia goes into the water reserves by the surface

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