The Importance Of The Print Media

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The rights stated in the first amendment have always been challenged ever since the U.S. Constitution was established, this is especially true when it comes to the matter of freedom of speech. When it comes to being censored, modes of communication have been challenged with acts that restrict the freedom of speech and freedom of press. Due to restrictions, these modes are unable to successfully utilize their resources to their full capacity. Although we go back and forth with the argument between liberty and censorship, print media, television, and the internet, it will continue to be protected by the first amendment.
The print media
One of the oldest sources of information is newspapers. During the Colonization Era, newspapers were censored
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One example was when the execution of a Vietcong Officer by a South Vietnamese general was caught on film then edited for television as “ the strongest stuff American viewers [have] ever seen”(Andersen, 2006, p.49). In addition to this, when the Pentagon Papers were found, there was a contradiction between the news media policy during the war and after. The Supreme Court case that demonstrated this was the New York Times v. United States. The government attempted to censor the press when the New York Times decided to publish excerpts from the History of United States Decision-making Process on Vietnam Policy, known as the Pentagon Papers. Nixon administration argue that disclosing of the documents would “endanger the national security” of the country (Soley, 2002, p.83). According to Foerstel (1997), “The Supreme Court ruled that the government had not justified its attempt at prior restraint of publication of the Pentagon Papers” (p.179). A similar situation also happened in the Supreme Court case United States v. Washington Post Company. The decision allowed both newspapers to continue with their publications. As presented in Free Expression and Censorship in America (1997), the Court’s ruling has several justices’ opinion. One of those opinions was by Justice Hugo Black with Justice William Douglas stating, “Both the history and language of the First Amendment …show more content…
Playboy is a form of entertainment that is globally known for their magazines that display sexually explicit content. Playboy Entertainment Group was established to manage the Playboy empire; it is in charge of including all publications of Playboy in print, television, radio and internet media. Playboy transmits their channels to people who pay for their service every month or for people who pay-per-view (Polse, 2001, p. 355). It is not uncommon for mistakes to happen with technology, meaning a "signal bleed". This means a malfunction in the transmission causes channels that are commonly blocked to be exposed. Andrea K. Rodgers states, “ Section 505 of the Communication Decency Act responds to a problem known as ‘signal bleed’”(Rodgers, 2000, p.499). Playboy decided to challenge Section 505 declaring it was unconstitutional in United States v. Playboy Entertainment Group, Inc., because it went against the First Amendment. Soon after, the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) began to enforce Section 505 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. A year after the district court invalidated Section 505, the court agreed it did violate the rights of cable network companies such as Playboy.
The court analyzed Section 504 and found it was content-neutral, meaning it was less restrictive than Section 505. It allowed Playboy to telecast its programs all day long with no limited hours to those who had paid for the programming. In order for Section

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