The Importance Of The Human Immune System

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The human immune system comprises of innate and adaptive immunity, both of which play an important role in the elimination of abnormal cells and foreign pathogens. The innate immune system is the body’s first line of defence against infection and provides a swift but temporal nonspecific immunological response to foreign organisms. In contrast, the adaptive immune response is slow, long lasting and most importantly highly specific: the cells undergo clonal expansion, which comprises the generation of adequate populations of effector and memory cells. These populations are able to mount swift and more effective responses upon secondary exposure to the same pathogen(1).
The innate immune system comprises of four distinct barriers; i) physiological barriers ii) the epithelial barriers including skin and mucosal surfaces iii) molecular barriers including complement system, mannose binding lectin, C-reactive proteins, antimicrobial proteins and peptides etc. and vi) cellular barriers
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It has been shown that during an episode of pneumonia, infants have increased levels of antimicrobial peptides in their lungs(29).
Pyelonephritis(30)
Invasive fungal infections(31)
Preterm infants are deficient in many circulating AMPs(32). At mucosal surfaces, such as within the gut, preterm infants have lower expression levels of certain AMPs(33) which has been proposed to contribute to their susceptibility to NEC(34).

FOCUS ON LL-37 AND BPI AS POTENTIAL THERAPEUTICS
Topical imiquimod for anogenital warts (35)
A recent review has covered the therapeutic potential of AMPs for therapeutic intervention

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