The Central Dogma

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Introduction
Information processing is crucial in all fields of science. In molecular biology, the central dogma, first devised by Francis Crick, is a classical backbone of living cells to essentially perform the processes from cell division to death through the DNA, RNA, and protein information ways. More specifically, the central dogma defines the transfer of sequence information during DNA replication, transcription into RNA, and translation into amino-acid chains forming proteins. It also states that information cannot flow from protein to protein or nucleic acid.
In addition, Hirao & Kimoto (2012) stated that:
Through molecular biology studies, from the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA in 1953 to the deciphering of the genetic
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Schlafen (Slfn) genes are a subclass of interferon-stimulated early response genes (ISGs) that are also generated directly by pathogens through the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) pathways. Still, many ISGs are of unidentified or incompletely understood function. Jones, Landry, Pan & Weitzman (2013) said that new antiviral instrument within the distinctive immune response, in which SLFN11 selectively constrains the viral protein synthesis in HIV-infected cells using codon-bias discrimination. (p.1) Direct binding of SLFN11 to tRNA deals the possibility that SLFN11 either sequesters tRNAs, averts their maturation via post-transcriptional processing or quickens their deacylation. In either case, if already uncommon tRNAs are further reduced, tRNA availability might marked as the rate-limiting step in the production of proteins involving those tRNAs. In contrast, a lesser or no impact would be expected on proteins synthesized via plentiful tRNAs, although a fraction of those tRNAs is ‘removed’, translation initiation will likely remain the rate-limiting event. As concluded by Jones, Landry, Pan & Weitzman (2013), SLFN11 as a strong, interferon-inducible constraint factor against retroviruses such as HIV, interceding its antiviral effects on the basis of codon usage discrimination. (p. 4

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