ABO Blood Grouping System Essay

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Evolution is a gradual process that produces changes that can be seen over generations. Evolution has several important aspects. The first of these aspects is that we all share a common ancestry and are, therefore, all related. The second aspect is that of natural selection (Pickrell, 2006). Natural selection is the process during which organisms become better adapted and more suited to their environment. This increases their chances of survival, and thus they are able to produce more offspring who are also equipped with these advantageous adaptations. One example of this process is antibiotic resistance. Evolution is a process that can contribute to the understanding of many phenomena, especially in the field of biomedical science. The significance …show more content…
It categorises a person’s blood type according to the antigens found on the surfaces of their red blood cells. This blood grouping system was discovered in 1901 by Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner (Durand & Willis, 2010) and is a system of classification that still exists today. The ABO blood grouping system is controlled by the ABO gene, which is found on chromosome 9 and has three alleles A, B and O (Farhud & Yeganeh, 2013). Further research undertaken in 1940 by Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener produced the discovery of the Rhesus blood group. In 1946 Coombs discovered the Kell system by using his anti-globulin test (Coombs et al, 1946). The Duffy and Kidd systems were also identified through the use of Coombs’ anti-globulin test (Giangrande, 2001). During the 20th century, the field of blood transfusions advanced tremendously, motivated by the onset of the First World War (Harding, 2014). The advancement occurred due to the new understanding of blood groups and the usage of an anticoagulant that enabled indirect transfusion to occur. Before the use of this anticoagulant, transfusion was only able to be carried out via the use of defibrinated blood as described by Moss …show more content…
Rather than the typical circular form red blood cells usually display, red blood cells take on a sickle shape. People with sickle cell anaemia experience a shortage of red blood cells that lead to tiredness. Sickle cell anaemia, in its homozygous form can lead to a decreased life expectancy. However, in its heterozygous form, people who carry the ‘’sickle cell trait’’, are at an advantage. This is due to the increased resistance to malaria that carrying the trait provides. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people of either African or Caribbean descent are carriers. In regions where malaria is endemic, people with sickle cell anaemia or those who are carriers of at least one gene is in a higher number than in those regions where malaria is not as common (Nhs.uk, 2012). This is an example of

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