Self-Efficacy Theory

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4.5.1. Self-Efficacy Theory Students acting productively can be better predicted by the beliefs they have about their capabilities more than what they can do. Despite the key role played by motivators in directing behaviour, they all in fact fall under the belief that one is empowered to produce changes by his/her own actions. The role of self-efficacy beliefs in the self-regulation of motivation through goal challenges and outcome expectations is unquestionable (Bandura, 1999; 2001). Consequently, self-efficacy and outcomes expectations can be very pertinent in elucidating students’ learning achievements. Students’ self-efficacy in reading is indispensible to their scholastic triumphs. Self-efficacy is all about what students deem to be …show more content…
In this case, students act productively on the basis of their beliefs about what they are capable of doing and the expected outcomes of their performance.
4.5.1.1. Sources of Self-Efficacy If self-efficacy is about how people feel, think, behave, and motivate themselves, then perceived self-efficacy elucidates people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce desired outcomes. Bandura (1994) truly pointed out that people develop their sense of efficacy from four major sources. Mastery experiences can be the first path to develop high efficacy beliefs. Certainly, experiences are what drive us to become capable of standing in front of intimidating situations. Success enhances our beliefs about our efficacy; whereas, failure lowers it. Experiencing repeated success can make failure easily defeated. Positive interpretations (Shunk & Pajares, 2005) of the results of our previous experiences build high perception of our capabilities to engage in subsequent tasks. Negative interpretations, on the other hand, raise the belief that we are not
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Whenever people are convinced that they are capable of overcoming obstacles, they can invest greater effort. Conversely, when they are persuaded that they lack the skill or knowledge necessary to accomplish the task, they then withdraw right away from the situation. As social persuasion can instil high self-efficacy, it can also become its impediment. Somatic and emotional states are the last source of raising people’s personal efficacy beliefs. Highly efficacious individuals regard their physical and emotional states to facilitate their performance; however, students who doubt their capabilities attribute their poor performance to physical or emotional states (e.g., tension, arousal, fatigue, and mode). Providing students with situations that are likely to recover their physical or emotional states can coerce them to anticipate success than failure, and in turn raise their perceived

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