The Importance Of Protein Influence On Human Stress
1343). People who have experienced traumatic events like child abuse and earthquakes or who are undergoing a stressful situation like final exams and conflicts with others tend to involve in alcohol abuse; environmental factors like these will influence a person’s alcohol consumption (Anthenelli & Grandison, 2012, para. 1). In Sraecke et al.’s experiment, “the psychosocial stressor elicited robust stress reactions in all groups of participants as shown by robust increases in heart rate, cortisol secretion, electrodermal activity, and self-reported negative effect” (2013, p. 1347). According to Boschloo et al. (2011) and Gianoulakis et al. (2003), alcohol use stimulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis “resulting in elevated baseline cortisol levels in actively drinking participants” (as cited in Starcke et al., 2013, p. 1343). Anthenelli and Grandison suggest that chronic alcohol consumption is correlated to “elevated basal glucocorticoid secretion, whereas the hormonal response to a stressor was blunted.” They believe that while stress increased anxiety, “alcohol was consumed to reduce anxiety” ( Anthenelli & Grandison, 2012, para.2). These stress actions are related to the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The prolonged stimulation of the HPA axis during active drinking may result in a reduced stress tolerance that causes overactive stress reactions in acute stress situations (Starcke et al., 2013, p.