The Importance Of Motherhood Penaltyment
This is because fathers are respected for being seen as the providers or “breadwinners” rather than the primary caretaker of their children’s daily needs. However, if the man were to take days off to be with their children, he too, would experience discrimination for taking on the “motherly” role. Thereby, the maternal wall creates a bias and penalizes married mothers while benefitting married fathers.
Maria Charles, Barbara Reskin and Irene Padavic examine the segregation of women and men in the workplace based on race and sex in their book, Women and Men at Work. They look into the trends of sex segregation in the United States and cross-nationally. They explain reasons for the inequality across workplaces by comparing experiences from both men and women from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Even though half of all jobs in the U.S. labor force are now held by women, “sex, race, and ethnic segregation favor men by reducing the competition for their jobs” (Charles, Reskin, and Padavic 47). Their research shows how the gender pay gap exists due to the sex-segregation within certain occupations. Men are often concentrated into …show more content…
The pay gap proves to be far worse for women of color. African-American women earn 64 cents while Hispanic women earn 56 cents for every dollar a white man earns. Despite women’s high levels of education, the U.S. has one of the largest percentages of gender inequality in the industrialized world. “At every level of schooling, women and black men have lower earnings than white men” (Treiman and Hartmann 13). This goes to show that education levels are not the most effective pay gap solution because the glass ceiling continues to discourage those who try. The glass ceiling is a non-visible barrier that keeps minorities and women from reaching the upper rings of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements. As a result, men are given greater life chances while women end up getting shortchanged. In Donald Treiman and Heidi Hartmann’s book titled Women, Work and Wages: Equal Pay for Jobs of Equal Value, the validity of the compensation systems and the methods for determining the relative comparable worth of jobs is investigated upon. In conclusion, they discovered that job evaluations are inherently subjective and prone to sex stereotyping. As a result, jobs held mainly by women become undervalued, resulting in lower pay. For example, “the secretaries that firms hire are primarily women because most trained secretaries are women” and typically men dominate managerial jobs