The Importance Of Memory In Memory

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There has been different research that proposed to explain how working memory capacity and different processing strategies enhance or interfere with memory performance. Although the literature cover different research, this review will focus in encoding and retrieval process of information, and the importance of working memory capacity. There is an important relation between individual differences in Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and retrieving information from long-term memory (LTM). In this literature review research suggested that encoding and retrieval of information depends heavily on the type of strategy being use by individuals. There are different types of processing strategies. However, this paper will exclusively focus on shallow …show more content…
They differ in many ways, such as its capacity in the amount of information stored and the types of processes that support performance. The STM was assumed to be only for a temporary storage of information. Baddeley in 1974 developed the concept of the WM to explain the performance on a task that requires more engagement of processing information as well as to a temporary storage. There are different distinctions between STM and LTM. One of the distinction includes the recency effect in verbal recall. The recency effect reflects retrieval from both the primary memory (PM) and the secondary memory (SM). The PM is limited in its capacity because it can only maintain a finite number of items in the conscious awareness. In contrast, the SM is assumed to be limitless. For instance, a short list of items can be maintained in the PM. However, a long list of items will involve retrieving items in the PM and then those items must be retrieved from long-term memory (SM). Furthermore, PM and SM are involved in performing both simple and complex tasks. The simple spans tasks rely much more on PM, while complex span tasks rely for the most part on SM. The extent to which retrieval from SM is involved in WM depends heavily on the amount of time or effort an individual is willing to encode the information (Rose, et al., 2012, p. …show more content…
Proactive interference (PI) refers to the tendency that previously learned materials interfere with recently learned materials. The discrimination theory suggest that PI is cause by failure to distinguish items from the most recent target list from items that appeared on the earlier nontarget list. During recall of the most recent target list, individuals may not be able to focus their memory search on target list, instead the individuals include items from non-target list into their mental search (Kliegl, et al., 2015, p.1778). In Kliegl et al., (2015) study, the results for retrieval factors suggest that PI effects in recall totals and response latencies were uncorrelated meaning that recall totals and response latencies can be functionally independent. The electrophysiological activities during list encoding indicates that not only retrieval, but also encoding can potentially contribute to buildup of PI. Furthermore, the electrophysiological activities in the theta and alpha bands were found to be increased from nontarget lists to target lists encoding (Kliegl, et al., 2015, p.1786). This result is consistent with the results of previous studies, which suggested alpha activity increases from nontarget to target list encoding (Pastötter, Schicker, Niedernhuber, & Bäuml, 2011). This studied reported that during encoding of 5-item lists, a reliable increase in alpha activity from encoding of List 1

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