Alumni Appraisal

Applying CRT to this study
The problem of practice that is being studied is the lack of engagement of Black alumni who attended PWIs and its possible connection to negative campus experiences. Gaier (2005) mentions that interpersonal relationships while in college are the most significant variable for determining alumni participation. He also notes that the higher the level of satisfaction with their academic experience, the more likely alumni would be involved with the university (Gaier, 2005). Clotfelter (2003) conducted a study showing that alumni satisfaction is linked to the type of experiences alumni had while they were attending the university. This includes an association with someone who may have taken a special interest in
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A PWI by definition focuses on the cultural majority, and can perpetuate the idea that Whiteness is the norm. Black students existing in this hegemonic environment may share common experiences that differ from their White counterparts. These experiences may provide some information regarding their future engagement as alumni. Gusa (2010) states that it is not necessary for current PWIs to be overtly racist in order to create a hostile environment. The principles of White culture are rooted in the language, cultural practices and traditions of these universities, which allow them to remain centered on race. A result of these types of spaces is that PWIs become isolating environments of hegemonic power which sustain the structure of control and oppression. These ideologies become a part of university policies and practices (Gusa, 2010). She calls the dynamics of this hostile environment, White institutional presence (WIP). Her study, which is based on Critical Race Theory (CRT), states that although higher education brings different worldviews, the idea that one should dominate over the other is problematic. Within WIP, Gusa (2010, p.472) assigns four …show more content…
In a study of Black male resident assistants (RA), Harper, Davis, Jones, McGowan, Ingram and Platt (2011) use Critical Race Theory (CRT) to expose how differently Black men experience the RA position at PWIs. While living in these environments, Black RAs experience racist stereotypes and insults, undue scrutiny by White supervisors, and racial and ethnic underrepresentation both on staff and as a resident. Harwood, Huntt, Mendenhall, and Lewis (2012) also analyze racial microaggressions in residence halls at PWIs and its impact on undergraduate and graduate students of color. Four microaggressions are identified including: (1) racial jokes and verbal comments, (2) racial slurs written in shared spaces, (3) segregated spaces ad unequal treatment and (4) denial and minimization of racism. Harwood et al. (2012) acknowledges that these same microaggressions can occur in the classroom, in social spaces as well as off-campus. The emotional and psychological effects on Black students caused by these behaviors by the majority group can interfere with their ability to perform academically. These experiences cause Black students to have a lower level of attachment to their institution which can affect future engagement as

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