The Importance Of Hardy Weinberg Theory

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Introduction: Hardy Weinberg theory was an effective tool for recognizing the different genotypes from one generation to the next and each allele frequency. This theory notifies us by how Mendelian inheritance was the lead for all genetic variation and it can be used to follow Mendelian’s rules of segregation and the combination of alleles. Polymerase chain reaction was one of the essentials that is used in the Hardy Weinberg theory of genetic equilibrium which was used in determining the presence of ALU element using TBA 25. The importance of using PCR is to make more copies of small pieces of DNA from human genome to look for the presence of ALU element. Every human genome contains approximately 5% of Alu element. In order for Hardy- Weinberg …show more content…
when we extracted DNA, we used Proteinase K (Pro K) digests to mix it with it and touch spinning it to extract all genomic DNA. We added to it Lysis before just to make sure there is no damage to the DNA membrane. We amplified DNA sequences of our cheek cells using polymerase chain reaction technique. We placed our DNA that contains master mix on the ice container so it does not get denatured while setting up out the PCR mixture. As a group, we set up our master mix and all all the mixtures we need in it to decrease the percentage of errors which could be done. While making the mixture for master mix, we had to keep it on ice all the time. We had to do it twice because the first time was not successful, we had too much bubbles. The second time, we had a little bit of bubbles, but we tried to get rid of it by pipetting it out of the tube which was a big error. Doing that, made us not have enough master mix later on to add it to our extracted DNA and the negative control tube so when we looked at out gel under the light, we had no bands for negative …show more content…
For us to separate the DNA fragments by size from smallest to largest, we used DNA electrophoresis which uses electric current to run it through agarose gel and we added enough TAE to fill out the cover of the gel. DNA was at the top of the gel since it has a negative charge, it moved down toward the positive charged end in electrophoresis. We viewed the gel under ultra-violet light to determine the observed genotypes (homozygous for the insert, heterozygous, homozygous for no insert which had the lowest BP) depending on the length of base pairs. After that we wanted to determine if Hardy Weinberg was applied and took place in this class and if alleles were in the state of equilibrium. So we used the Chi-square test to enable us to determine if it actually took place or not. So first, we determined the degree is freedom by finding out how many individual classes were observed and subtract it from one and that was referred to as absolute frequency. Then, we calculated the P-value which is the probability that the difference between what you expected and what you observed is due to random chance. The P-value enabled us to determine if the hypothesis is being rejected or not depending on the amount of

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