Genetic Mutation

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Most people think mutation is a bad thing, but it can be beneficial to human because it creates genetic variations and survival advantage. Mutation is a process that changes the DNA sequence. It has been studies that multiple genes are the possible risk factors for breast cancer. However, mutation of the genes relates to breast cancer because it is a result of critical genes growing and dividing uncontrollably, which are responsible for cell growth and repair damaged. According to Genetic Learning Science Center (2015), germline mutations are genetic changes that are inherited from a parent; thus, changes in the genes are influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors resulting to breast cancer. BRCA1 or BRCA2 are also a type of genes …show more content…
Due to the advancement of medical technology, there is a complexity that created ethical problems. An example of advancement in medical technology is the genetic testing. Genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer is a good way to detect BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Today, women without a symptom can find out their chances of getting breast cancer in the future. According to Randolph (2001), since genetic testing efficacy is still imperfect, it is better to screen women with high risk families; however, it doesn’t stop other women outside the research protocol from getting the test. There are companies that offer genetic testing to women who are not at risk. It is imperative for women must have a thorough understanding of genetic testing and its accuracy. As mentioned by Randolph (2001), a positive testing for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutated genes does not conclude that a person will get breast cancer in the future. It is important to take into consideration the possible contributing factors such as: family history, environmental factors, lifestyles, and other genes that might come into play. In my opinion, one of the downfall of genetic testing is the possibility of a women becoming depressed once she finds out her chances of getting breast cancer in the future. Additional bioethical issues of breast cancer are the patients who are unwilling to undergo a certain treatment (chemotherapy, or radiation) because of the severe adverse effects. ther patient wishes to not lose their breast via surgery, and prefers other alternative treatment such as homeopathy and herbal treatment. My final example of bioethical issues are the tendency of some women using the genetic outcome when making a reproductive decision. When planning for treatment and caring for patients who is dealing with breast cancer, it is important for healthcare professionals to remember the core of ethical issues such as respecting for autonomy, non-maleficence

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