Machiavelli's Values

Great Essays
Have you ever wondered that the definitions of morality, ethics, values and virtues are made by men and not by ‘gods’? These are created in order to put a barrier from conflicting interests. That is why, according to Hegel, rules and laws are considered to be a compromise among the differences of men. Although, how can laws of men be seen as “good” when past (some at present) practices of the primitive societies, do not seem ethical right in the twenty-first century. Roman nobility treated slaves as inhuman and it was considered “right”. Sacrificing the slaves and spouses of an Egyptian ruler that passed away was also considered “right” because there was a belief that they will lead them to reincarnation. Bertrand Russell stated that philosophy …show more content…
Is politics much more than their definitions and a baseless ground of values? Political philosophy’s weakness had molded into a breakthrough as Machiavelli (1469-1527) was the first to give a more realistic ground to politics. He gave a normative and “value-free” approach. Gradually and slowly, political philosophy was decaying as many political thinkers had followed in his idea. “What happened to values?” It was still important like according to Hegel (1770-1831), he distinguishes between morality as the standpoint of the will and ethics as the idea of freedom. However, Hegel’s standpoint is still based on reason and in freedom as his dialectical approach had a transcendental being. Science is starting to debunk myths and it grew in the minds of the people — that there is a much more rational way to explain the environment and how men work. The values that gave political philosophy most of their normative stand was given a more empirical …show more content…
The positivistic approach was the first to theorize an empirical method, but it was Behavioralism that made the turning point. What contributed to the behavioralism’s success was that it adopted the objectives of positivism except that they borrowed the systems of natural science as their framework. The popular use of quantitative research methods such as election polls, scales, and sample surveys, etc., drove political philosophy apart from political science because their methods were in contradiction to one another. Ian Barbour (1979) claimed that not only was their content and subject matter different but also their ways of knowing. Behavioralism may have been a success as it contributed to the rise of policy making, political institutions etc., and many called this as a shift of paradigm but it was only a “mood” as Robert Dahl describes. Many started to argue, especially those who supported the political philosophy that if “value-free” was the mindset of political science then ‘good’ and ‘bad’ were useless. Plato’s context of ‘justice’ and other values would be meaningless. It was also considered an irony that Behavioralism was contradicting itself because they are searching

Related Documents

  • Great Essays

    s intuitive as the ideals of political freedom and equality have become in many parts of the world, these ideas were revolutionary when first pondered by philosophers. Thinkers Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke both pioneered these concepts in their works, and though their theories of a legitimate state mirrored each other in certain regards, their ideas also differed about what freedom and equality should look like. While both agree that a legitimate state must eliminate societal inequality, Rousseau believes that it should increase the freedom of men, and Locke argued for the necessity of men giving up their natural freedoms in order to be protected by the state. Rousseau distinguishes between two kinds of inequality, which he identifies as “natural” and “moral or political” (Rousseau, A Discourse on Inequality 77). In discussing his theory of state, the latter type is more important, as it refers to inequalities among men established by “some sort of convention” and relies on men to perpetuate these inequalities (Rousseau, A Discourse on Inequality 77).…

    • 1240 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Superior Essays

    That still isn’t a good angle because if he truly did believe in the unalienable rights of all people, he would have given his slaves the option to fend for themselves in the harsh reality of that century or stay under his command. So, I guess it is hard for me to take a side on this dilemma owing to the fact that I can see both sides of the argument. I think that Jefferson was a progressive man for his time, but I do not believe he made only progressive and ethically sound…

    • 1413 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Great Essays

    The Importance Of Lie

    • 1627 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Indeed, today we all live in the post-truth era where objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotions and personal beliefs. This is a problem itself, but it is aggravated by its dramatic impact on society. A perfect illustration is Brexit: the Remain campaign featured factual arguments based on proofs in the form of block graphs and pie charts, but they conceded to the Leavers who exploited people's emotions and especially their irrational fear of “the other”. As a result, the Leavers succeeded, but soon after those who voted for Brexit realized that they…

    • 1627 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Individuals such as John Locke and Jean- Jacques Rousseau, did not necessarily want to rebel against authority, but they believed in developing ways to better humanity through new ideas for government, economy, and religion purposes. During the Enlightenment, John Locke was an important figure due to his political beliefs of Sensationalism and Contract Theory of Government. Locke 's theory of Sensationalism, proclaims that people are equal in birth and should be equal in rights because everyone is born as a "blank slate" to be further shaped by society. This theory continues to spark questions in the mind of Locke, leading to his development of Contract Theory of Government, which proclaims that if one 's own government becomes oppressive and takes away the rights of the people, then rebellion should occur within the establishment. Traditional views in society usually stated that the government and the people should be separated by distinction, and the people should not question the actions of those in leading positions, yet the theories of Locke were ones that challenged these traditional views.…

    • 873 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Aristotle and John Stuart Mill were two famous philosophers known for their studies in politics. Aristotle believes the best form of government is a polis, while Mill believes a more laid back structure is better. He believes the people should be ruled by the harm principles. Although they have very different ideas on how the people should be ruled, there are many similarities between the two. Aristotle was a great philosopher from the BC era.…

    • 828 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Additionally, note what specifically about Kuhn’s perspective helps you understand how we come to know? If I imagine a conversation between Kuhn and Descartes, upon closely looking at their publications, I believe Kuhn would disagree on several of his discourses with Descartes. Using his idea of paradigm, Kuhn helped bring the philosophy of science closer to the history of science. On the other hand, Descartes’ way of knowing is based on experience and influenced by deductive reasoning to lead to the development of ideas. In this connection, Kuhn believed that Descartes caused a paradigm shift in a broad, and historical sense.…

    • 700 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    He states that calling a slave guilty of anything is paradoxical in meaning because logically, slave owners are the truly guilty ones. Thoreau also insinuates that people are sheep who blindly follow societal normalities that are clearly unethical. This represents his and other reformer’s beliefs about varying moral issues, such as slavey, during the mid-1800s. Thoreau, Henry David. Walden.…

    • 904 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Hobbes Views On Rebellion

    • 1557 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Extremely unlike Hobbes’s view, Locke had a more positive view of human nature and believed in their views and opinions. Locke believed humans could improve themselves and even a government if they were willing to do, so while Hobbes on the other hand believed that humans were narcissistic and only thought about themselves and strived for their own benefit. It is in Locke’s book “The Second Treatise on Government” that the most precise examinations into the right of revolution can be found. Its clear from his book that the right of rebellion and revolution ties hand in hand with Locke’s political theory. this book was used almost to justify the revolution in the late seventeenth century (O’Tool,2011).…

    • 1557 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Some people believe that complete freedom will bring chaos to individuals because humans need some sort of leadership, and some believe that freedom brings only opportunities to show how great some people truly are. These two contrasting views on freedom are explained through the philosophical texts and views of Martin Luther King Jr and Thomas Hobbes. Martin Luther King Jr enlightened the entire world with his views in Love, Law and Civil Disobedience and Thomas Hobbes showed the world a new side of political philosophy with his work in Leviathan. In both of these works one can see the contrasting views on freedom and can judge what influenced these views based on the time period that these philosophers lived. The true question of whether or not freedom will benefit the people is whether or not one believes that the masses need some sort of direction.…

    • 1218 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Scientific rationalism was the overarching philosophy that emerged in the midst of the scientific revolution. Formed by the ideas of René Descartes and Sir Francis Bacon, scientific rationalism stated clearly that a person should take nothing for granted and scientifically prove what is correct to believe in. French Descartes encouraged questioning long-held beliefs and accepting nothing until it had been proven. He was adamant that people must always strive to rationally understand the physical world. Bacon’s beliefs were similar to that of Descartes, but in addition, he suggested that people should use experimentation and observation to help them understand their surroundings.…

    • 1112 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays