The Iceberg Theory

2822 Words 12 Pages
Register to read the introduction… Awareness

Fine arts, literature, classical and popular music, drama, games and sports.

Unawareness

Conception of beauty, definition of sin, relationship to animals, courtship practices. Patterns of superior/subordinate relations.

3. What are some examples of "above-surface level" culture?

Fine arts, literature, classical and popular music, drama, games and sports.

4. What are some examples of "below-surface level" culture in the iceberg concept?

Conception of beauty, definition of sin, relationship to animals, courtship practices. Patterns of superior/subordinate relations.

5. Distinguish between “culture” and “nation”; “culture” and “race”; and “culture” and “ethnicity”.
Nation—a political term referring to a government and set of formal and legal mechanisms that have been established to regulate the political behavior of its people
Nations may be inhabited predominantly by one culture or many
Race—a term that refers to genetic or biologically based similarities among people
Similarities are distinguishable and unique
Similarities function to “mark” or separate groups from one
…show more content…
What do each of the following cultural patterns deal with: activity orientation, social relations orientation, self- orientation, world orientation, and time orientation?

Activity orientation

How a culture views human actions and the expression of self through activities
Start with point on “being—becoming—doing” continuum
Success is measured differently
Work and play are seen as separate
Interpersonal communication patterns are shaped accordingly
Social relations orientation
How people in a culture organize themselves and relate to one another
Emphasizes differences and social hierarchy to equality and absences of hierarchies
Degree of importance of formality is affected
Importance of group over individuals is affected
Definition of social and gender roles can vary
Directness and confrontational approaches vary
Social reciprocity is affected

Self-orientation

How people view themselves and how their identities are formed
Individual or group identity is emphasized
Changeability becomes important—can become “better”
Source of human motivation—external or internal—is emphasized
Duties, rights, or a combination distinguishes

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