Graphene Lab Report

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Graphene is considered as pure carbon in the form of a very thin, one atom thick nearly transparent sheet. It is very strong for its low weight (100 times more stronger than steel and it conducts heat and electricity efficiently. While scientists had theorized about graphene for decades, it was first produced in the lab in 2003. Because it is virtually two-dimensional, it interacts oddly with light and with other materials. Researchers have identified the, ballistic transport of charges, bipolar transistor effect and large quantum oscillations.[5]

Technically, graphene is a crystalline allotrope of carbon with 2D properties. In graphene, carbon atoms are densely packed in a regular sp2-bonded atomic-scale hexagonal pattern. Graphene can be called as an one atom thick layer of graphite. It is a basic structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, CNT and fullerenes. It can also be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the limiting case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[5]

Fundamental Characteristics

Monolayer graphene was separated in 2004, before
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Carbon atoms have a total of six electrons; two in the inner shell and four in the outer shell. The four outer shell electrons in an individual carbon atom are there for chemical bonding, but in case of graphene, each atom is joined to three other carbon atoms on the two dimensional plane, leaving one electron freely available in the third dimension for electronic conduction. These highly mobile electrons are called pi (π) electrons and are located above and below the graphene sheets. These pi orbitals overlap and help to increase the carbon to carbon bonds in graphene. Fundamentally, the electronic properties of graphene is explained by bonding and anti-bonding (the valance and conduction bands) of these pi

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