The Four Organic Macromolecules Deoxyribonucleic Acid Essay

1499 Words Jun 5th, 2015 6 Pages
Of the four organic macromolecules deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid. DNA is a double-stranded molecule comprised of numerous nucleotides covalently bound together. Nucleotides contain a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases. The four nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). To construct DNA’s double helix, hydrogen bonds form between two complementary nitrogenous bases. These bonds only form between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine (“DNA”).
DNA contains the instructions on how to create and build an organism. A gene is a sequence of nucleotides that code for different proteins, depending on the order of the nucleotides. In this way, genes determine all genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.
All humans have 99.9% of the same DNA sequence. The remaining 0.1% of DNA is the DNA that gives diversity to humans. This small percentage is enough to distinguish one individual from another by using DNA fingerprinting (Highfield “DNA Survey”).
DNA fingerprinting is the method of isolating and extracting a specific sequence of DNA (“DNA Fingerprinting”). To do this, a sample of DNA is needed, which can be obtained from cheek cells or a strand of hair. To account for the similarity in human DNA, in the past, scientists have used restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), which are the variation in the length of DNA when homologous DNA is cut by restriction enzymes (“RFLP…

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