Metronidazole Research Paper
Systematic (IUPAC) name: 2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethanol
: 80% (oral), 60-80% (rectal), 20-25% (vaginal)122,123
: 20% 122,123
: Hepatic 122,123
: 8 hours 122,123
: Urine (77%), faeces (14%) 122,123
: 171.15 g/mol
: 159–163 °C (318–325 °F)
Metronidazole is a nitroimidazoleantibiotic medication used particularly for anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Metronidazole is an antibacterial against anaerobic organisms, amoebicide and antiprotozoal.124 It is the drug of choice for first episodes of mild-to-moderate Clostridium difficile infection.125
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, …show more content…
3.5. They are also used in cosmetics and food products. Lecithins are mainly used in pharmaceutical products as dispersing, emulsifying, and stabilizing agents and are included in intramuscular and intravenous injections, parenteral nutrition formulations, and topical products such as creams and ointments. Lecithins are also used in suppository bases, to reduce the brittleness of suppositories, and have been investigated for their absorption-enhancing properties in an intranasal insulin formulation.
Table No. 3.5 : Uses of lecithin.
Use Concentration (%)
Aerosol inhalation 0.1
IM injection 0.3–2.3
Oral suspensions 0.25–10.0
Lecithins vary greatly in their physical form, from viscous semiliquids to powders, depending upon the free fatty acid content. They may also vary in color from brown to light yellow, depending upon whether they are bleached or unbleached or on the degree of purity. When they are exposed to air, rapid oxidation occurs, also resulting in a dark yellow or brown color. Lecithins have practically no odor. Those derived from vegetable sources have a bland or nutlike taste, similar to that of soybean oil.
10 Typical Properties
0.97 g/cm3 for liquid lecithin;
0.5 g/cm3 for powdered lecithin.
95–100 for liquid lecithin;
82–88 for powdered