The Evolution Of HR Management: The Evolution Of Human Resource Management

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1) Evolution of HRM
Human Resource Management in its simplest definition, means management of organization’s manpower or workforce or human resources.
HR has evolved over the last hundred years in response to significant changes in the way organizations get their work done. The challenge for HR today is to outline upcoming events based on the trends that are exceedingly foreseeable, and to step up to the challenge of creating its own future.

(Vosburgh, 2014)
The history of labor traces the evolution of HR management and HR as a profession. There was little HR management in early labor. When work was done by slaves, indentured servants and the impoverished lower classes, workers had little or no human rights. There was little concern
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The industrial relations professional, the forerunner of today’s HR manager, had existed since before the war, but their primary focus was to manage personnel for increased productivity. Productivity goals, union management, government mandates like FICA and FLSA, and the human relations movement resulted in the multiple responsibilities that typify human resource management today.
As the idea of “personnel management” grew, researchers continued to study how best to manage labor. Today, we are light-years away from Taylor’s scientific management, with its specialized tasks and one best way of doing a job. The Hawthorne studies showed a clear link between productivity and employee satisfaction; and in 1943, Abraham Maslow published his research on motivation, describing a hierarchy of needs. All of this significantly challenged the practice of regarding employees as merely factors of production.
The changes manifested as a spate of labor legislations such as the Equal Pay Act (1963), the Civil Rights Act (1964), Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970), and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (1974). The need to comply with such legislation increased the importance of the human resource
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A global organization must systematically match the internal and external supply of people with job openings anticipated in the organization.
For example, without proper identification of the qualities needed for an overseas assignment, an outstanding worker in the US may fail on a global assignment.
There are 3 types of global staffing for firms to select from: expatriates, host country nationals, and third country nationals.
• The expatriates are non-citizens of the country where the firm’s operations are located, but is a citizen in the country where it is headquartered in. (ex US citizen employed in US company sent to work in China)
• A host country national is an employee who us a citizen of the country where the subsidiary is located. (Ex US citizen working for a Japanese company in the US) most common due to several advantages.
• A third country national is a citizen of one country, working in a second country, and employed by an organization headquartered in a third country. (ex an Italian citizen working for a French company in Germany)

How are these types used to benefit the

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