The Energy Strengths And Consequences Of Adenosine And Phosphates

1407 Words 6 Pages
The energy currency for almost all living organisms is a compound called ATP, or adenosine tri-phosphate. This compound is made of up one adenine and three phosphate molecules which link together to form a structure like this:
Adenosine

Notice that the three bonds within this molecule become increasingly longer the farther away the phosphate is from the adenosine. This is to represent the fact that the bonds weaken as the distance between the adenosine and phosphates increases. This is important because the last phosphate is easily broken off in this manner, easy meaning it takes very little energy to detach it from or reattach it to the ATP molecule (Brandt). A main reason this is important is because as it was stated earlier, almost
…show more content…
This contains amylase, an enzyme that is used to hydrolyze carbohydrates into disaccharides and trisaccharides. These monomers are then converted into glucose through the use of other enzymes in the body(Kimball). Amylase is produced by the pancreas as well as the salivary glands within the mouth. These enzymes are released when chewing begins. This mixture of enzymes, sugars, carbohydrates, and fiber are then swallowed and eventually the sugars are absorbed by the small intestine. These nutrients are carried in the blood and deposited in various cells. Once the glucose has been deposited into a cell, the process of cellular respiration can …show more content…
This process, subsequently, is how almost all organisms obtain energy for life processes: through the energy that is released when the bonds within ATP molecules are broken. Hydrolysis is utilized in this process because it involves the addition of water molecules to break down compounds into their monomers. This is important because cellular respiration is the process of the breakdown of glucose by cells to ultimately obtain energy for life processes. Cellular respiration begins in the cytosol of a cell using the end product of photosynthesis; glucose. This glucose undergoes glycolysis, which is the breakdown of glucose through the use of enzymes to produce energy and pyruvate (C3H6O3). This process requires two ATP to occur and produces four ATP as well as NADH. The NADH is split into NAD+ and H if there is no oxygen present through fermentation. If oxygen is present, the NADH passes through the cytosol and into the mitochondria to continue the process. This NADH is converted into ETS and carried through to the last step of the process. While that process is taking place, the pyruvate is either undergoing fermentation to produce CO2 and ethanol if there is no oxygen present, or the pyruvate, like the NADH, moves on to the mitochondria in the presence of

Related Documents