The Encyclopedia Of Modern Middle East And North Africa Essay

1553 Words Nov 7th, 2016 7 Pages
The Encyclopedia of Modern Middle East and North Africa defines fatwas as “the legal judgement or learned interpretation that a qualified jurist (mufti) can give on issues pertaining to the shari’a (Islamic law).” Fatwas are able to be issued by anyone trained in Islamic law, and is said to have been issued in their millions since early Islam, usually concerning the various aspects of “individual life, social norms, religion, war, peace, jihad, and politics.” (Weimann 2011, 766) Fatwas can be binding for Shias and fundamentalist or radical Sunnis, depending on their relation to the issuer (Schmuel Bar 2006).
Terror fatwas, synonymous with jihadi fatwas, are fatwas that promote jihad, violence and martyrdom, sanction targets, and even permit the use of nuclear weapons. The Grand Ayatollah Khomeini’s death fatwa against Salman Rushdie in 1989 for his book, The Satanic Verses, stirred Muslim outrage all over the world, promoting violence and terrorism (Kenan Malik 2009). The assassination of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat in 1981 was attributed to a similar death fatwa by the Jama’at al-Jihad. Osama Bin Laden’s fatwa in 1998 provided the religious authorization for Muslims to indiscriminately kill Americans and Jews everywhere. There was also a death fatwa against the publishers of the Charlie Hebdo magazine. Several Islamic clerics have issued a fatwa to all Muslims to come to Syria and carry out the moral duty to fight against the government and Shiites in the name of a…

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