The Empirical Evidence Of Behavior Essay
Transtheoretical Model (TTM) is a stage-based model that provides a conceptual basis that can be used to develop interventions to help people with addiction issues, such as smoking, to change their unhealthy behaviour (Prochaska, DiClemente, & Norcross, 1992). According to Prochaska et al (1992), the use of ‘stage of membership,’ as well as ‘stage of change,’ helps categorize the subject’s level of readiness to make a successful behavioural change.
In Spencer, Pagell, Hallion, & Adams (2002) qualitative analysis of all available research analyses of TTM, it was found that TTM’s application to tobacco cessation is strong and is continuously growing. It, however, was found not conclusive, and there is a need for more research on the differences in how the model is applied to large-scale interventions vs. individualized interventions. In this study, they examined the validity of TTM and its constructs, special populations regarding tobacco use, and finally, stage-matched interventions in smoking cessation.
Validity. Spencer et al. (2002) rated the validity of TTM using a criteria created by Anastassi (1989) and Messick (1989). It was found that TTM met the first criteria wherein the constructs must be based on established theories namely cognitive/behavioural theory, self-efficacy, as well as Health Belief Model. The second criterion for validity of TTM is reliability, which was measured by…