Essay about The Effects Of Water Related Diseases On The Environment

1349 Words Nov 28th, 2016 6 Pages
Covering over 70% of the Earth’s surface and comprising two-thirds of the human body, water is essential to the sustenance of life (CDC, 2016a). However, only 3% of the world’s water is freshwater (WHO, 2015). Due to the limited availability of freshwater, 663 million people in the world lack access to safe drinking water (WHO, 2015). Contaminated drinking water can contain pathogenic bacteria from human and animal waste, harmful metals, and dangerous chemicals from the improper disposal of industrial wastes. Water-related diseases affect more than 1.5 billion people each year and result in a global loss of $260 billion each year due to the lack of safe water and sanitation (WHO, 2015).
The majority of the Earth’s freshwater exists in frozen ice caps and glaciers, while the remaining 1% of freshwater is available through surface water and groundwater (AWWA, 2009). Surface water is available through wells, streams, lakes, rivers, ponds, and reservoirs (AWWA, 2009). Groundwater is the water found in the interconnected pores of an aquifer (AWWA, 2009). An aquifer is a layer of permeable rock from which groundwater can be extracted (AWWA, 2009).
Renewable water is a freshwater source that is replenished through the hydrological cycle (AWWA, 2009). The hydrological cycle is the natural cycle in which water evaporates from the ocean and other bodies of water, accumulates as water vapor in clouds, and returns to the ocean and other bodies of water as precipitation (AWWA, 2009).…

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