The Distribution of Alu Genotypes Essay

2161 Words Feb 18th, 2013 9 Pages
The Distribution of Alu Genotypes in a Group of Level 4 Students


The Distribution of Alu Genotypes

Introduction

DNA is mostly found in the nucleus of nearly every cell in the human body, it contains the biological instructions that make us unique. Located on the genome at different locations are short, identifiable sequences known as Alu insertion polymorphisms. The application of Alu elements has recently become used in forensic identification and paternity testing. Alu elements are found in nearly one million copies per haploid gene which approximately 5 – 10% of the human genome. The Alu elements can be found bordering genes or gathered with other interspersed repeated sequences (Primrose 1998).

Alu elements are repeated
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ACE

n = 31
Total alleles = 62

2 (+ +) 4 + alleles
14 (+ -) 14 + alleles 14 – alleles
15 (- -) 30 – alleles

Frequency of + allele = Total number of + alleles
Total alleles

Frequency of + allele = 18
62

Frequency of + allele = 0.29

Frequency of - allele = Total number of + alleles
Total alleles

Frequency of - allele = 44
62

Frequency of - allele = 0.71

The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium equation is as follows, with the fraction of + alleles denoted by p and the fraction of – alleles denoted by q.
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

0.292 + 2(0.29)(0.71) + 0.712 = 1
0.0841 + 0.4118 + 0.5041 = 1

Expected number of individuals with (+ +) genotype = p2N
= 0.0841 X 31
= 2.6071

Expected number of individuals with (+ -) genotype = 2pq
= 0.4118 X 31
= 12.7658

Expected number of individuals with (- -) genotype =…

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