The Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders Essay example

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-V; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) defines Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) as persisting and age-inappropriate behavioural patterns of inattention or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These impediments halt a person’s ability to function across multiple domains such as social, academic and/or occupational. The DSM-V acknowledges three presentation styles of ADHD which include primarily hyperactive-impulsive, primarily inattentive or combined. In order for a diagnosis, symptoms must arise before the age of 12 and persist for more than six months. Another criterion for diagnosis is that at least six symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity or impulsivity listed in the DSM-V be met. As ADHD continues to have its biggest impact and prevalence (3-7%) in children and adolescents aged 17 and under (Polanczyk et al., 2007), this essay will primarily focus on this age group.
Although the exact cause of the disorder is not yet known, Rickel and Brown (2007) found that a majority of health care professionals agree on multiple factors within the span of human genetics and the environment; thus methods of treatment address these contributors. The main medications used in Drug or Combined Therapy are stimulants (Methylphenidate and Amphetamine) which cause dopamine and norepinephrine levels to become liberated in the central nervous system. Non-stimulants such as Atomoxetine boost norepinephrine…

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