The Deer Running Essay

983 Words Sep 18th, 2016 4 Pages
For each situation there are many possible causes some are inherent in the creature or object itself while other causes are external to it. According to Aristotle in his book, Physics, there are four categories of these of causes; material, formal, efficient, and final. These categories of causes are defined at II.3, 194b23-41. Aristotle states that we use cause in four ways. To describe these causes, I will be using the example of a deer running from a predator.
Cause can be used in relation to what an object is made of. This is known as material cause. In Physics, the example of a bowl being made of silver is used. In this case it could be said that the material cause of the deer running, is that prey animals are made to run from predators.
Cause is also used in reference to a pattern or form the object exhibits. This is formal cause. The formal cause of the deer running is that deer always run when scared because they are timid and weak.
Another way cause is used, is for what caused the object to no longer be at rest. This is usually external and called the efficient cause. In this case the wolf caused the deer to run.
Finally, there is final cause. Aristotle states that final cause is when cause is used to define the end or “what something is for,” (194b33). In this case the creature’s running is done in order to survive.
All of these forms of cause work together. This is why in psychology multiple measures are taken to examine all four forms of cause.…

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