The Current Treatment Options For Breast Cancer Essay

975 Words Sep 13th, 2016 4 Pages
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States and in many other nations of the world (R. Siegel, Miller, & Jemal, 2015). It is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and invasion of tissues in various parts of our body such as lung, breast, and colon. The American Cancer Society estimates diagnosis of 1,685,210 new cancer cases and 595,690 cancer related deaths in the US in 2016 (R. L. Siegel, Miller, & Jemal, 2016). Breast cancer is identified as a diverse disease in reference to its origins, metastasis, disease progression, and response to treatments (Ossovskaya et al., 2011). Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in women and makes up for almost 249,260 new cancer cases, with approximately 40,890 deaths (R. L. Siegel et al., 2016). The current treatment options for breast cancer include local treatments such as surgery and radiation therapy or systemic treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and bone – directed therapy (American Cancer Society, 2016). Micro-array profiling of invasive breast carcinoma identified five subtypes of breast cancer as luminal A (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-), luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+), normal breast-like, HER2 over-expressing (ER-, PR- and HER2 +), and basal-like (ER-, PR-, HER2-) (Bauer, Brown, Cress, Parise, & Caggiano, 2007).
The Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), which is the basal-like type of breast cancer, accounts for about 20% of all breast cancers (Hurvitz & Mead,…

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