The Critical Analysis Of Garrett Hardin's Tragedy Of Common

1547 Words 7 Pages
As more and more environmental concerns such as natural resource depletion and pollution have been the major challenges for life of every human, an increasing numbers of environmentalists and public citizens are currently willing to find out the radical reasons that lead to those issues and what kinds of change can we make to address those as well. The problem was puzzling people until the idea of “tragedy of common” had been brought out by Garrett Hardin in 1968. In fact, the problem rooted in the tragedy of common can not be illustrated just based on its literal meaning, rather it should be understanding in more metaphorical way in which the word “tragedy” is not deemed to be a condemn resulted from reasons. However, the central argument …show more content…
In this essay, I will critically review this article on the basis of articulating Hardin’s main argument, the important weakness of his idea and its contribution for addressing a range of current environmental concerns. Firstly, Hardin initially had put his most effort on the argument that we can not solve the technical problems using some practical solutions. Like he said, “rather, the concern here is with the important concept of a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems” (Hardin, 1968). To illustrate, he used the food scarcity as an example of a technical problem to demonstrate the idea in which such a range of practical solutions like technological innovation of transgenosis producing more food than conventional way does, “farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat” (Hardin, 1968) can not be regarded as the actors who can tackle the problem of lack of food due to the rapid increased world population. Actually, the technical problems are mainly derived from growth of population and unlimited consumption of the …show more content…
Since the central reason leading to this issue is the externality that differs the marginal social cost from marginal private cost does it need to find a system in which the externality can be internalized. In effect, the concern of externality is derived from the problem that the property right for common is not defined exactly. Once the property right has been assigned properly, the common resources can be protected from the freely unlimited exploitation by everyone. However, there are two concepts relating to the idea of internalization of externality. The first is Pigovian Tax, which is a method that using the taxes as an instrument offsetting the gap between the social cost and private cost. For instance, the industries who discharged greenhouse gases emission into the atmosphere will be charged additional carbon taxes for that. But this method had been criticized based either on the fact that it is hard and costly to collect all of information about the cost and benefits for each individual part or on the concern about whether the taxes will be transferred to polluter or victim. Additionally, the second way is called Coase theorem, which is stating that the flexible market will eventually solve the problem once the property right has been explicitly defined. In the other ways, this theory supports the

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