The Consequences Of Acid Rain

2224 Words 9 Pages
1. Introduction
Pre-industrial revolution, humans beings used to live a primitive life whereby they used wood for cooking, warming house; as biofuel. Even later when they lived in houses, they used candles to light up their homes. Post-industrial revolution, human beings discovered new energy resources which have made life much easier to live. And the discovery of these resources (coal and oil), have also supported the advancement of new technologies e.g. automobiles, airplanes, generation of electricity from power stations and so on. However, though the exploitation of these resources have made life much easier, they have resulted also in environmental degradation in varies ways (air pollution, a warning earth, land degradation, etc.), something
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The more accurate term used by Scientists is “acid deposition” which covers the two types of acid rain which are wet deposition (rain, snow, fog, mist) and dry deposition (dry particles, gas) (Dubey, 2013; Singh & Agrawal, 2008).
The acidity or alkalinity of a liquid/solution is measured on the pH scale ranging from 0 to 14. Any liquid with pH of 7 is neutral e.g. distilled water has a pH of 7 (is neutral) when carbon dioxide is removed (Dubey, 2013). A liquid with pH of 1 is highly acidic and that with a pH of 14 is highly alkaline (or basic) (Kulp, 1990) (See Figure 1).
Figure 1: pH scale showing the pH of various solutions with normal rain at pH of 5.6 (HowStuffWorks, 2007).
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2.1 Causes of acid
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The acid rain does not kill trees directly; instead it weakens them as the essential nutrients are removed from the soils or stripped from the leaves by acid fog. The effects of acid rain in trees include slowed tree growth, leaves turning brown and falling off and exposing trees to the heavy toxic substances that are released from the soils (Botkin & Keller, 2014; Dubey, 2013). The toxic substances, such as aluminium, damage trees. The injury or death of trees is often the result of these effects of acid rain combined with one or more additional threats (Dubey, 2013).
The effects of acid rain on food crops are usually minimised because farmers frequently add fertilizers to the soils to replace the leached nutrients. Sometimes
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