The Complication Of Transient Exposure To A Stterile Mouse Model

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1. The hypothesis tested in the Navarrete et al. 2016 paper, which revolved around in virto fertilization of sterile mouse models when exposed to calcium ionohpore, sought to determine whether transient exposure to a calcium ionphore alone was sufficient to overcome upstream hyperpolarization and PKA pathway defects in infertile mouse models that normally occur prior to a intracellular calcium increase in functional and sufficiently capacitated mouse sperm cells. Additionally, they examined Catsper knocked out mice to determine if a transient calcium increase in these mice was also sufficient to overcome capacitation and fertility defects discovered in early experiments by Ren, D et al. in 2001. Overall then the hypothesis would read something …show more content…
Figure one contains experimentally derived results demonstrating hyperactivation, fertilization rate, and blastocyst formation between two different mice strains, as well as a western blot used to indicate the presence or absence of PKA pathway products. Of the two mice strains in figure one, C57BL/6J mice normally display a lower hyperactivation rate and fertilization rate compared to the CD1 mouse strain (Goodson, S. G. et al. 2011), and as such researchers used the C57BL/6J mice to perform a gain of function test. By exposing the C57BL/6J strain of mice to a transient increase in calcium they were able to demonstrate a significant increase in the mouse strains fertilization and hyperactivation potential (Navarrete, A. F. et …show more content…
A knockout mouse is a mouse that has a certain targeted gene in its genome replaced with a gene which codes either for an inactive form of the desired knockout gene, or with another gene that codes for a product completely unrelated to the original genes product. These mice are then used to test various hypothesizes that revolve around the effects of the inactivation of the knocked out gene. To form a knockout mouse researchers must first consult the mouse genomic library and determine the gene which they intend to knockout. They then must synthesize a target genome sequence which contains a pair of homologous genes on either side of the gene of interest, which are identical to those genes that are aside the gene of interest in the unaltered mouse genome (Gilbert, 2016). In between these two homologous genes in the synthesized target DNA sequence researchers add a gene which will replace the target gene. Often this gene can serve a number of functions in addition to simply replacing the original gene of interest. Generally a DNA sequence can be created so that it not only allows researchers to visualize the mice which have incorporated the altered DNA sequence into their genome, but it also can be synthesized in a manner to incur resistance to a particular type of drug that normally the mouse would not be immune to. As seen in the Catsper knockout mice used in the Navarrete A. F., 2016 experiment this added gene which replaced the Catsper gene was the bacterial LacZ gene,

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