The Cause And Effects Of Water Scarcity

2049 Words 9 Pages
1. INTRODUCTION
By 2050, it is expected that the current global population would have increased by more than 50%. The countries with the greatest population growths ( Figure 2) are also situated in areas with the least availability of fresh water ( Figure 1). These countries are also predominantly poor and cannot implement expensive water retrieval and treatment methods.
This results in great economic stress on wealthier countries. This report will provide information on the current water sources and their sustainability. The effects of population growth, with relation to pollution, will be discussed along with possible future action that can be taken to prevent or solve future and current water problems, respectively. In conclusion the question
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Humans can survive without water for no longer than 7 days. The bi-product of human’s need for water is also the use of polluted water. Water can either be polluted with organic matter or inorganic; both are detrimental to the health of humans.
There are also socio-economic concerns involved with water scarcity. Children are forced to travel and transport water for daily uses. The time spent collecting water impinges on time that could be used for education. Woman also fall victim to wasting time collecting water, instead of working and generating an income. Lack of available water also leads to starvation. Farmers are not able to water crops and livestock die or become ill due to polluted waters.
2.3 Who is most affected?
As can be seen in figure 1 and 2, countries in Northern Africa, the Middle East and South East Asia have got the lowest amounts of available water. The problem is compounded due to the fact that these areas have the greatest growths in
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This leaves them unable to help themselves and with the inevitability of having to be aided by 1st world countries. India has a strong growing economy, however due to the ever growing and extremely overpopulated cities; it cannot cope with water demands and pollution of water sources.
2.4 Water Sources
The current percentage of fresh water is just less than 3 percentage of Earth’s total water storage. The fresh water comprises of ground water, rivers, lakes, atmospheric water and glaciers/ ice sheets. Figure 3 illustrates the percentage breakdown of all the sources of fresh water. One of the major concerns for water, as was mentioned earlier, is in north Africa.
2.4.1 Water sources in Northern Africa
Northern Africa contains 2.5% of Africa’s total storage, however is currently responsible for 46% of Africa’s total consumption of water. The two most common sources of water are renewable alluvial aquifers and the NSA non-renewing aquifers. The extraction rate in Egypt is 407% of the recharge rate of the aquifer, while in Libya the extraction rate is 560% of the recharge rate (UNDP and others

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