The Brain Research Paper

1976 Words Dec 9th, 2011 8 Pages
The Brain
.What weighs about three pounds but has more parts than there are stars in the Milky Way galaxy? What fills the space occupied by only three pints of milk yet includes components that, laid end to end, would stretch several hundred thousand miles? What looks like an oversized walnut made of soft, grayish-pink cheese but contains the equivalent of 100 trillion tiny calculators? What, according to James Watson, co-discoverer of the helical structure of DNA, is "the most complex thing we have yet discovered in our universe"? To all four of these intriguing questions there is but one surprising answer: the human brain. This miraculous organ is remarkable in its structure, its function, and its chemical composition. What is
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Neurons have three basic parts:
Cell body or "Soma"-- This main part has all of the necessary components of the cell, such as the nucleus (which contains ), DNA plasmic reticulum and ribosomes (for building proteins) and mitochondria (for making energy). If the cell body dies, the neuron dies.
Axon-- This long, cable-like projection of the cell carries the electrochemical message (nerve impulse or action potential) along the length of the cell. Depending upon the type of neuron, axons can be covered with a thin layer of myelin sheath, like an insulated electrical wire. Myelin is made of fat and protein, and it helps to speed transmission of a nerve impulse down a long axon. Myelinated neurons are typically found in the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord.
Dendrites or nerve endings-- These small, branch-like projections of the cell make connections to other cells and allow the neuron to talk with other cells or perceive the environment. Dendrites can be located on one or both ends of the cell. (Craig Freudenrich PhD)
We little by little ascended from decrease life types to what we are right now, by a process of natural choice

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