Low Carb Dieting Research Paper

780 Words 4 Pages
Introduction
With all of our modern advancements in medicine and better understanding of human nutrition, one would think that our obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease rates would decrease. It has been previously reported that US consumers were spending over 3 billion dollars on weight loss products in 1999 and that 2/3 of American’s surveyed were currently trying to either maintain or lose weight. Despite these reports, and even with a multitude of diet options available, obesity rates have consistently been on the rise in the United States.
Throughout history, the general consensus amongst doctors and nutritionists has been to focus on a diet low in fat with moderate levels of protein and carbohydrates. Limiting fat, unfortunately,
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Traditional nutritionists have suggested a minimum carbohydrate intake of 100 grams daily to prevent losing lean muscle tissue, whereas low carb advocates typically limit carb intake to 10 to 20 grams per day. When carb intake is restricted, the body’s liver converts acetyl CoA into the ketone bodies 3-hydroxybutyrate and Acetoacetate. Since the liver cannot use ketone bodies, they are transported to the brain to use as an alternate fuel source to traditional glucose.
Carbohydrate recommendations are based on ensuring enough glucose is provided and that dietary ketosis is avoided. According to anti-carb enthusiasts, there is no clear requirement for carbohydrates in an adult human’s diet. There is currently no RDA for carbohydrates due likely to the fact that the human body can adapt and naturally create the glucose that it requires. It is true that elevated levels of ketone bodies during low carbohydrate intake will eventually lead to a physiological state known as ketosis. Low carb advocates feel that dietary ketosis is harmless in humans who are not currently battling diabetes. If a diabetic detects ketone bodies in their urine, it is typically associated with poor management of diabetes and can be a sign of a condition known as ketoacidosis, not ketosis. Mild ketosis
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Most of the claims from various Atkins endorsed studies and trials have not been peer reviewed and included no control or regulations. The average consumer who attempts to follow the regimented diet will have a difficult time achieving the results promised due to the lack of nutritional supplement monitoring, personalized counseling, and regular follow-up meetings that were provided to the case studies. It has also been argued that a majority of the initial weight lost during a low carbohydrate diet stems largely from water loss. Glycogen stores are far more hydrated than fat stores and, therefore, their depletion during a carbohydrate restricted diet leads to lower body weight due to temporary water loss. This is not ideal since the motive for most diets is to lose body fat, not muscle or water

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