The Bauhaus School

Superior Essays
The Bauhaus school was founded in Weimar by the German architect Walter Gropius in 1919 with a modern agenda that included the unification of the arts and the elimination of the distinction between artist and craftsperson. In an essay on the Bauhaus written in 1923, Gropius acknowledged the sources that shaped the foundation of the Bauhaus school, sources which included William Morris and John Ruskin in England, Henry Van der Velde in Belgium, as well as Peter Behrens and the Deutsche Werkbund in Germany. (Whitford: 12-14) This range of influences on the Bauhaus is reflected in the school’s evolving mission over the course of its fourteen year existence. The Bauhaus timeline can be divided into key periods: the Weimar Bauhaus from 1919-1924, …show more content…
He wished to retrieve from the notion of the guild an emphasis on craftsmen working towards a common goal. At the Bauhaus, which was born in the aftermath of the Great War, this meant “starting from nothing” as they set out to design a modern Germany. The Bauhütte influenced the name the school while also serving as a template for its structure. Masters replaced professors, and students were their apprentices and journeymen. The notion of the Bauhütte is best exemplified in the Gothic cathedral. This comprehensive work of art, architecture, and engineering was made possible by the collaboration between wood and stone carvers, stained glass makers, weavers, fresco painters, and other craftspeople with architects and masons (Whitford: 32). Gropius addressed this synthesis of disciplines in his 1919 Proclamation, stating that “the ultimate, if distant, aim of the Bauhaus is the unified work of art- the great structure- in which there is no distinction between monumental and decorative art” (Conrads: 50) This is also reflected in the choice for the cover of his manifesto, which shows a cathedral in the Expressionist style by Lionel Feininger (figure 1). The Weimar school’s early ideas, with its references to guild and cathedrals, could be traced back a half to the Arts & Crafts …show more content…
Gropius’s desire to house multiple disciplines under one roof echoed Morris’s atelier, which could produce a variety of fine crafts on commision, an axample being the Green Dining Room (figure 2) commissioned for the South Kensignton Museum (now the Royal Vitoria and Albert Museum). This was also echoed in the broader German movement to produce fine crafts on an industrial level that could compete with those seen in England. Here an important distinction must be made between Morris and Gropius: While Morris condemned machine made goods, Gropius wanted to integrate the arts and crafts with industry. After serving in the Great War, Gropius desired to “tame the machines of war for the benefit of man” after having witnessed the mass slaughter made possible by new technologies (Whitford 1994). His time spent in Berlin was another important influence. There he worked for Peter Behrens, an original member of the Deutsche Werkbund, a collective of individual artists and craftsmen sought to improve standards in design and industry. They implemented this in the design of major new industrial buildings (Naylor: 20) (figure 3). This was a new incarnation of the widespread desire to unite art and engineering

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Bauhaus In Art

    • 1023 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Gropius was a famous architect in Germany. He was also the father of the Bauhaus, aimed to use art to resolve social issues during the social disorder of the post-war of World War 1 (Bauhaus Online, n.d.). In one hand, he established design courses to educate his students an alternative idea of modern art, and bring possible solutions to transform art into an industrial economy and create connection between the reality and the idealism. (Hoffa, 1961) He delivered classes with fundamental design skills to help his students obtaining and expressing in the same visual communication. Over a period of time, a new language based on emotional and experiences were replaced afterwards (Gropius, 1948).…

    • 1023 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    We live in a world sculpted by the work of technological professionals. As the significance of the choices made by engineers increases, it has become more and more important to ensure that these choices are ethical. Through analysis of Eric Katz’s ‘Nazi Engineers’, it is clear that technology is value laden and societies’ ethics ultimately determine the direction its technology goes. Katz writes this essay to educate his students about Nazi ethics so they can avoid their misguided moral reasoning and learn about the ethics embedded in technology. To articulate the reasoning of the Nazis, Katz uses three main ethical ideologies used in Nazi society; Technological Neutrality, Doubling, and Integration and Ideology in engineering.…

    • 808 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    He has given new dimensions to the field of architecture. Early work of Kahn was based on traditional approach, but the later work in last two decades of his life was based on modern approach. His work is role model for the architects of present era. He was concerned about the importance of function, nature and culture in the design of building. Kahn is also known to have used brick and concrete extensively and his innovative usage of these materials showed his talent to the…

    • 1021 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    This excerpts intended audience could be future engineers/architects, historians, and students that are only reading it for a grade on their response papers. The intended purpose of this excerpt is to see how architecture was revolutionized. During the 19th century, Engineers began to use cast iron as a structural support in their building to provide strength for all the bulk. Thus the cast iron became very popular and spread throughout Europe. According to the text, (“ the innovator in the use of cast iron for public buildings was, in fact, not an architect but a distinguished horticulturist and a greenhouse designer, Joseph Paxton.” in Fiero 195) He has a building that was first prefabricated building and the forebear of the functional steel and glass architecture.…

    • 907 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    With enormous sources about architecture came from Europe to America, “architects” learned and applied them differently. Some were called “the untutored folk builders” who only followed the builders’ handbook repeating traditions. Some “master builders” , on the contrary, ditched the traditions completely to build out without foundation knowledge. Neither of them were as successful as “the gentleman amateurs” , who learned from classical styles, and applied them in ways that best fit the local context of the time. Thomas Jefferson successfully learned from elaborate drawings of Pantheon by Andrea Palladio, invented his own Pantheon- Monticello- in Charlottesville, Virginia, which in 1987 with the nearby University of Virginia, also designed by Jefferson, were together designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.…

    • 744 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In the late 19th century, another famous American architect — Franck Lloyd Wright, who was an employee of Sullivan’s studio, inherited Sullivan’s idea about relationship between form and function. Wright thinks that architecture should be loyal to not only structure and purpose of itself, but also time, site, and the environment. Based on the idea of organic architecture, combining his practice in “Prairie Style,” Wright had further developed Sullivan’s idea forward it to a more throughout theory of “organic architecture.” In the article “ In the Cause of Architecture” in 1908, Wright wrote, “A sense of the organic is indispensable to an architect; where can he develop it so surely as in this school? A knowledge of the relations of form and…

    • 832 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Bauhaus Essay

    • 1475 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The Bauhaus School of Design was founded in 1919 in the city of Weimar by Walter Gropius, a German architect. The Bauhaus school was created to combine the arts and crafts, technology and architecture disciplines to reach a common goal to unify creativity and the manufacturing objects, building and art. Walter Gropius decided to combine two of his schools, the Weimar Academy of Arts and the Weimar School of Arts and Crafts, into what he called the Bauhaus. He believed that by training the students in both fine art and design he would produce new artisans and designers who were gifted in creating useful and stunning objects. The instructors at the Bauhaus weren’t just teachers who loved art they were artists who were part of the German expressionism…

    • 1475 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The Bauhaus was an art school in Germany Dessau, it was built with the idea of generating an overall work of art in which all arts, cultures, and architecture be unified and modernized. The Bauhaus style is considered one of the most influential masterpieces in the modern design. The school was developed in the 1900's under the hands of three different architects. The founder and the creator of the Bauhaus was Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer took the lead after Walter from 1928 to 1930, the school was then closed by Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe when he was pressurized by the Nazi directed government. However closing the school didn't stop the staff from pursuing their job and spreading the school's idealistic perceptions of how…

    • 901 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Bauhaus was the main school of workmanship, outline and engineering on the planet. Showing strategies were thought as craftsmen working cooperatively. Regularly understudies was told "Shape Follows Function", which implied making correspondence outlines that suited current society; this developed to be perceived as New Typography. Typography workshops lead by Moholy-Nagy and Herbert Bayer built up the possibility of Hitler kilter sort, communicating a pledge to functionalism, which turned into the trademark of Bauhaus typography. Joint efforts between Bauhaus, Lissitzky, Van Doesburg and Kurt Schwitters (German Dada craftsman) in mid-thirties made another outline approach that was known over the world.…

    • 821 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The importance of architecture to Brunelleschi allowed him to share his different viewpoints with other architects, such as Florentine architect Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), who began to follow in the construction footsteps of Brunelleschi himself hungered to put Gothic architecture to rest, and when he died 1446, he was buried beneath his towering achievement. “Filippo Brunelleschi’s and Leon Battista Alberti’s works in the field of Ecclesiastical Architecture make for a fine comparison of how the ideas and ideals of Antiquity were translated into Renaissance architecture” (Gentleman’s Gazette). Therefore, the importance of antiquity allowed for further growth of construction between the 15th and 16th century…

    • 781 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays

Related Topics