The Authoritarian Regime Of Indonesia Essay

1242 Words Nov 16th, 2015 null Page
During the reign of President Soeharto, the second president of Indonesia, Indonesian governmental system was unitary state with authoritarian system. At this era, the administrative system was set into a hierarchical system; from the higher level to the lowest level namely central government, provinces, cities (kota) and rural regencies (kabupaten), districts (kecamatan), and urban neighborhoods (kelurahan) and villages (desa); with a large number of military officer designated in many administrative positions. Yet, the central government was implemented a tight control of administration on the lower level of government (Green, 2005; Callavan et al, 2009). The authoritarian regime was ended in 1998 when Soeharto handed over his power to his vice president, Habibie, as a result of the reform movement who asked him to resign.
Democratization process in Indonesia was started under the administration of Habibie. He introduced democratic reform in many aspects as initiated free elections, free media, legislation and administration transparency, and democratic decentralization. He introduced the Regional Autonomy Law (22/1999 and 25/1999) which become the basis for central government to delegate most of its authority to local government. The term of local government refers to provinces and sub-provinces (cities and rural regencies). In 2004, the government published Laws 32/2004 and 33/2004 as an improvement on Law 22/1999 and 25/1999 (Callavan et al, 2009).
The hierarchical…

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