The Apache Treaty

1887 Words 8 Pages
Between the years of 1778 and 1871, the United States was entering many treaties with the Native American Indians living in the territories and states of the country, promising benefits, protection, and a better life. There was an estimated of more than five hundred treaties, most of which were never ratified. The Treaty of the Apache was one of them. This paper will provide information about the United States government offering rights, protection, and guarantees to Indians that were never fulfilled. This treaty was entered in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on the first day of July in 1851. It stated the following:
“Articles of a treaty made and entered into at Santa Fe, New Mexico, on the first day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand eight
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E. V. Sumner, U. S. A., commanding the 9th Department and in charge of the executive office of New Mexico, and John Greiner, Indian agent in and for the Territory of New Mexico, and acting superintendent of Indian affairs of said Territory, representing the United States, and Cuentas, Azules, Blancito, Negrito, Capitan Simon, Captain Vuelta, and Mangas Colorado, chiefs, acting on the part of the Apache Nation of Indians, situate and living within the limits of the United States.”
Before the treaty had been established, there were concerns with the Apache regarding the Anglos. The Anglos were temporarily on the Mimbreños’ land dwelling and rebuilding abandoned walls of adobe at the copper mines. The Apaches did not want Mexicans, Anglos, nor any stranger on their land, especially after the Johnson Massacre of 1837. It was not a safe place for anyone to enter since 1838. The Apache chief at the time, Mangas Coloradas, was mostly concerned with the intruders because there was much more Anglos than the Mimbreños. The year of 1851 was a very problematic year because of miners moving to the West for gold. On one
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Sumner in the year of 1852 made an official report to Daniel Webster, saying that if the outrages continued, the territory would be left a howling wilderness, and recommended to return New Mexico to the Indians and Mexicans. Attacks however continued by the Apaches. In July 1853 they killed 170 people in Sonora and destroyed towns, then later raided southern Arizona.
E.A. Graves, agent to the Mimbreños, suggested to wait and see that the Indians would slowly fade away and become extinct, instead of trying to attack and figure out what to do with them later. He said “to exterminate the aborigines of the forest and mountains is a policy that no enlightened citizen or statesman will propose or advocate.” There was no solution being given and Apaches were being noticed by people such as he Commissioner of Indian affairs and agent Kit Carson to be stealing. They wanted to teach them how to earn their own food the Christian way and how to become less violent. People such as agent Lorenzo Labadi urged the government to provide food for them so they would stop the stealing. More treaties and policies were trying to be implemented that were being ignored. Agent Kit Carson also wanted the Congress’s participation and a “fair and just” treaty. Fighting’s continued especially with the Jicarillas, but eventually peace treaties were established in

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