Tawhid Paradigm Analysis

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1- what does Wadud mean by “Tawhid Paradigm”? How does this contribute to a gender-inclusive interpretation of the Quran?

The “Tawhid Paradigm,” as Wadud describes is the model of which God (Allah) is above the “I” and “Thou,” that there is no God but God, and that all subjects are equal and on one line. Also, Wadud explains that men are equal to women and no one should be above the other. Everybody is equally anonymous to take action.
Since both men and women are in equal distance to God, putting hierarchy into subjects undermines all these three subjects, which are Allah, “I” and “Thou.”
Wadud argues that most interpretations of the Quran comes from men, as they leave certain parts that neglect equality between men and women, causing a double talk of the texts.

2- What is the “double critique” Juliette Williams engages in regarding Shia temporary marriage and American marriage practices?

Juliette Williams describes the practice of temporary marriage within the Shia Muslims as an agreement between male and a female, either in verbal or written format with the intention to
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She describes the connection between Islamist and progressive thinkers in terms of women’s role in the society. For example, While radical Islamists oppose Western feminist ideas, progressive Muslim thinkers such as Usama Anwar urges women to find balance between work, love, career and marriage. Egyptian progressives think that women are threatened by the institutionalized head form of the “Hijab” ( Veil) and the radical idea that forces women to return to their traditional roles. Abu-Lughod states that the West needs to stop looking at the cultural differences by asking Muslim societies to distinguish themselves from their Western counterparts. Instead, we need to focus on how and what unites women, but not only through

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